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The father of the term ‘biotechnology’ was Hungarian: The forgotten works of Károly Ereky
Published September 14, 2005

In the Nature, Robert Bud gave an account of the fact that the generator of the concept "biotechnology" was the Hungarian Karl Ereky who, in his book published in Berlin in 1919 entitled "Biotechnologie der Fleisch-, Fett- und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe" ("Biotechnology of Meat, Fat and Milk Production in a Large-Scale... Agricultural Farm"), disclosed his observations and new views in that regard. Later on, Ereky's two essays, published in German language again, and other contemporary German sources have been processed which have confirmed the assumption whereas – in scientific terms – the further first applications of the expression "biotechnology" can be attributed to Ereky's works. Recently, we have explored and found biographical sources and documents which had been published by Ereky, which, however, have already been forgotten, by dint of which the story of origin of the first concept "biotechnology" can as well be clarified in a factual manner.

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Application of microsatellite fingerprints for pedigree analysis of Hungaricum grapevine varieties
Published November 15, 2007

the Carpathian Basin were involved into our examination, which aimed at genotyping their accessions. DNA fingerprints of 101 varieties were determined with 6 microsatellite markers till 2005, resulting in successful discrimination of the accessions. Based on these results for pedigree determination, even more cultivars and primers were involved... into the analyses. For studying the origin of Csabagyöngye and for proving the parent-progeny relations of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály, 19 microsatellite markers were applied, while 11 were selected for tracing the origin of Királyleányka. Genetic distances between the varieties were estimated with cluster analysis and demonstrated by dendrogram, proving that the varieties can be discriminated from each other based on the microsatellite allele sizes. Pedigree of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály has been confirmed by microsatellite allele size results, searching for the parents of Csabagyöngye and Királyleányka is in progress, since the molecular-marker based pedigree does not correspond with the putative origin of these cultivars. Our results excluded progeny-parent relationships in the
Csabagyöngye-Bronnerstraube-Muscat ottonel (Ottonel muskotály) and the Királyleányka-Kövérszőlő combinations. 

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Selection of powdery mildew resistant and susceptible grapevine genotypes with molecular markers
Published November 15, 2007

Incorporation of competitive quality and resistance against the most important fungal diseases (powdery and downy mildew) in a cultivar is one of the most important aims of grapevine breeding. In the 20th century, the most advanced results in grapevine resistance breeding were achieved by French researchers. They used resistant cultivars in mor...e than 30% of their growing areas. In these varieties, North American wild Vitis
species were the resistance gene sources. The discovery of immunity-like resistance of Muscadinia rotundifolia opened new perspectives in resistance breeding. M. rotundifolia harbours a dominant powdery mildew gene, providing resistance in highquality cultivars after back-crosses with V. vinifera varieties. M. rotundifolia has been involved in the Hungarian grape breeding programs since 1996, thanks to a French-Hungarian variety exchange. In addition to traditional selection methods, application of MAS (Marker Assisted Selection) based on various types of
molecular markers, can provide additional tools for these efforts. Run1 locus, responsible for powdery mildew resistance, was identified in Muscadinia rotundifolia. Molecular markers closely linked to this locus are very significant in screening progenies deriving from M. rotundifolia and V. vinifera crosses, making possible the discrimination between resistant and susceptible genotypes at DNA level. In our analyses BC5 progeny of {(M. rotundifola×V. vinifera) BC4}×Cardinal (V. vinifera) tested for powdery symptoms were analysed with PCR-RFLP (GLP1- 12P1P3) and microsatellite markers (VMC4f3.1, VMC8g9). Our results proved the applicability of the linked markers and reliability of marker assisted selection.

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Micropropagation of Rudbeckia hirta L. from seedling explants
Published May 23, 2006

We conducted experiments for developing an in vitro micropropagation protocol starting from meristems of Rudbeckia hirta L seedlings. We pre-soaked the seeds in sterile ion-exchanged water for 17 hours, and then achieved surface disinfection in two separate steps. First, we used concentrated household sodium-hypochloride solution for 20 minutes... and, also for 20 minutes, we applied hydrogen peroxide of 10%, which was followed by washing with sterile ion-exchanged water three times. For the propagation of seedling meristems, the combination of half-strength solid Murashige and Skoog (1962) culture medium containing 10 mg/l of kinetin and 2 mg/l of kinetin + 0.1 mg/l of 2iP proved to be the most suitable. The average number of shoot-buds developed from the seedling axillary meristem in the best culture media varied between 5 and 17. Without separating them, we inoculated the shoot-bud clusters on MS culture medium containing 2 mg/l of IAA. After four weeks of incubation, we obtained elongated shoots, which we separated and inoculated into a new culture medium and from which we obtained elongated roots. The rooted plants were gradually acclimatised in the cultivation room, potted and carried to a greenhouse, and then planted in open field for subsequent observation. By adopting this method, our laboratory started the micropropagation of the superior and/or elite genotypes of the Rudbeckia hirta L. being of special value in respectt to breeding.

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Alternatives of the multiple use of Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby) as a shrub-replacing mallow in the temperate climate zone
Published May 16, 2012

In the seventies of the previous century, Dr. Zoltán Kováts set two directions in the research of mallows. One of the directions was the biotechnology of the mallow species and the other direction is using the mallow species as biomass material. In order to do this he brought mallow mother spawns of ornamental and biomass sorts from botanical... gardens abroad and tested many of them, including the a Sida hermaphrodita kind. Fourty years later, for the second time this plant, known as the „energy mallow” got back to Hungary again, right into the sight of hungarian biomass business with the help of László Balogh and his associates using help from Poland. This genus got into the center of our research, because of it’s valuable attributes. The latest experiments are about using it as an energy plant, without examining genetic details. The plant grows up to more
than 3 meters, has high growing rate and produces big amount of green mass. We don’t have any hungarian data about whether the plant continues the sufficient growing rate or not, after cutting it back.
We have to explore the potentials in the Sida’s sublimation. The plant is mostly suitable for ornamental and energy utilization, so further sublimation should be aiming for these aspects. During my research period, we are willing to get to know these potentials and the best possible use of them.

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Lambing Frequency in the Ile de France, Suffolk and Babolna TETRA Stocks of Babolna c.o., Szendrő
Published May 4, 2004

Lambing frequency of three different genotypes was evaluated in the breeding stock of Babolna c.o. Szendrő. Ile de France, Suffolk and Babolna TETRA breeding ewes gave the data for the further evaluation. The main aim of this research was to find out if there is any significant effect of selected parameters (registration class, lambing season,... lambing type and the years) on the lambing frequency, the period between consecutive lambings. Production parameters of 9,471 Ile de France, 1,244 Suffolk and 7,618 Babolna TETRA ewes were collected and processed. The analysis covered the period between the years 1989-1999. It was concluded that not all of the evaluated parameters had a significant effect on lambing frequency. Not all of the genotypes showed significant differences, according to the examined parameters.

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