No 18 (2005)

Published March 4, 2005

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Articles

Selection of Sport- and Racehorses
3-10

The utilisation of the horse has changed from time to time in response to human needs. For a few decades, it has been serving in several equestrian sports more intensively. It has also been proved that the standards for this kind of performance cannot be established in the way certain characteristics, such as the weight gain or milk production ...of other animal breeds can. Breeding horses for sporting comprises highly complex selection criteria.
Some of these (e.g. external features, temperament, manageability and intelligence) do not put the breeder in a difficult position, but finding the traits that establishes the safety of sporting achievements poses a genetic problem.
The performance of a horse for sports is a highly complex feature, which cannot easily be assessed or put down in figures. In addition, man plays a decisive role in shaping all kinds of performance of a horse at any given time by not only creating conditions for a better performance, but also by playing an active role in increasing it.
The performance of the horse is mostly defined by its general aptitude to movement, ie., the regularity, clear rhythm and springiness of basic types of strides, as well as the ability to move in a naturally balanced way. Training and riding principles are based on these traits. These two together will determine about 70% of the value of the horse and its adequacy for high performance equestrian sports. In order to avoid subjectivity in determining the above variables and to increase the degree of objectivity, competent expert teams (trainers, judges, other riders) are employed to form an opinion on an individual animal.
Assessing horse performance outside races does not seem to be efficient, as owing to the dominant effects of the environment, the indicator of inheritability is hardly above 0.1.
Free jumping is an especially appropriate means for assessing a horse’s readiness and ability to move in an environment free of disturbing factors. In free jumping, it is especially important to judge the style of the jump. The first phase of jumping – as a sequence of movements – lasts from the moment the fore-feet touch the ground until the moment the hind-feet push off, while the second phase lasts from this moment until touching the ground. The most important task in the first phase is to make the angle of the dip of the body by the supporting fore-feet that is necessary for the jump. The quality of the jump is determined by the jumping and adequately expanded hind-legs. The intensity of pushing off and jumping done by the hind-legs can be inferred, and differences between individuals can be discerned from the shaping of the curve by the hocks and the paths of the pasterns in relation to the withers.

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Changes of Longissimus Muscle Area and Rump Fat Thickness in Hungarian Simmental Fattening Bulls Measured Using Real-Time Ultrasound Equipment
11-15

The aim of the authors was to evaluate changes in the longissimus muscle area (LMA) and rump fat thickness (P8) based on real-time ultrasound scanning in the Hungarian Simmental cattle breed. Ultrasonic measurements were carried out on the same 11 Hungarian Simmental fattening bulls by Falco 100 (Pie Medical) equipment (I.: age: 357±23.47 days..., live weight: 475.55±51.40 kg; II.: age: 418±23.47 days, live weight: 555.10±54.11 kg) on two occasions. Animals were kept in small groups, on deep litter, and fed on silage and concentrate. LMA and P8 were measured on the scans, between the 12th and 13th ribs by manual outlining. Results for the investigated traits during the examinations were as follows: P8: I.: 0.373±0.154 cm, II.: 0.624±0.161 cm; LMA: I.: 65.72±5.89 cm2, II.: 71.74±8.94 cm2. During the fattening period, P8 increased significantly (I-II.: t=3.73, P<0.001). A significant positive correlation was calculated between results of measurements I. and II. in the case of LMA (r=0.71, P<0.05). Results imply the possibility of selling bulls with smaller LMA earlier, at lower body weight. Application of ultrasonic measurements in fattening technology could generate a more quality-related pricing system.

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Examination of Fattening and Slaughtering Performance of Hungarian Merino, Ile de France F1 and Suffolk F1 Lambs
16-23

In our examination, we evaluated Hungarian Merino (ram n=30, ewe n=30), Ile de France F1 (ram n=10, ewe n=10) and Suffolk F1 (ram n=10, ewe n=10) lambs. The best fattening performance was shown by the Ile de France F1 lambs (361 g/day). After the fattening period, Hungarian Merino, Ile de France F1 and Suffolk F...1 genotypes lambs were slaughtered with a live weight of 30-34 kg. Carcasses were evaluated for dressing percentage, weight of valuable carcass cuts, percentage of valuable meat, bone to meat ratio, as well as meat conformation and fat cover (S/EUROP grading).
The slaughter performance proved to be the best for the Suffolk F1 concerned dressing percentage (51,7%), percentage valuable carcass cuts (81,9%). The best percentage valuable meat presented (79,4%) the Ile de France F1 lambs. The best meat conformation and fat covered were in the Suffolk F1 lambs; Hungarian Merinos showed less favourable results.
Presently, the results derived from Hungarian practice that Hungarian Merino lambs are not eligible for fattening to great live body weight (30 kg). Therefore, it is necessary to revise the Hungarian Merino lambs with meat sheep breeds.

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Decreasing Energy and Water Use in the Meat Industry
24-28

The technology supervisions are needed from time to time in order to involve the new research results, experience, new technologies and equipments organising principles into the production and to make it cheaper and with less expenditure to increase the profitability and competitiveness. In the course of our investigation we aimed the analysis ...of the traditional technologies and improving of it. In this article we detail the heat treatment curing process. We applied the principles of experimental design for the determination the main influencing parameters in the processes. Then we made simulations and modelling in seeking for the environmentally better technology programs. We developed a method for measuring the temperature development of products with small diameter using the similarity theory in unit operation. In the course of the analysis of the heat treatment processes we could state that the heat treatment time can be reduced significantly by decreasing the size of the product and choosing the right ratios among the surface heat transfer intensity, ambient temperature and involving the lethality obtained during the cooling phase. The total sparing were about 10-20%. We solved the problem associated with the sensor placement error using a plastic material (metamid). We establish a curve between the real product temperature and plastic rod temperature by which the monitoring of the process became more accurate. We determine the size modification for different product sizes. In case of curing we observed very similar phenomena. For the determination of the diffusion coefficient we adopted the Ball-method not using in this field till today. We could reduce the excess saltiness and loss of NaCl with about 5%.

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Novel Applications of Microwave Techniques in the Food and Environmental Industries
29-34

During the microwave processing, despite the conventional heating, the material heats consistently inside. This property of microwave is utilized by drying and dehydration processes. The thermal sensitivity of raw materials of food industry requires development of gentle, fast and controllable technologies, which is realizable by means of combi...nation of conventional and microwave techniques. The other important application area of the microwave technique is food industrial practice is enhancing the microbial safety of products, mainly by pasteurization processes. In recent time the strict environmental regulation necessitate developing more effective treatment of wastes, waste waters and sewage sludge. Because a part of these techniques are heat and power demanded, the microwave technique may be an alternative process in execution of sludge conditioning, drying or gasification and pyrolysis.

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Morphological Features of Two Poa Species on Different Soil Types in Seminatural Grasslands
35-39

The Poa pratensis L. and the Poa angustifolia L. are close relative species whose morphological features vary greatly. Our goal was to examine how the inividuals from different soil types of these species differ statistically from one another, whether the morphological features of the variant species differ significantly, and whether they keep ...their specific features in dissimilar habitats.
The quantitative features of the populations developing on distinct soil types wich are statistically separate provide for the different phenotype forming effect of the soil types as variant habitats. There is connection between the soil types and the measurement of the ramets on every soil types. The morphometric values of P. pratensis – that are bigger in all habitats – show that this species genetically widely adapted. Significantly different morphological features were found, but because of the high environmental dependence of the morphological features and of the significantly different characteristics which reveal several overlaps between the two species, these characteristics cannot be considered as reliable identification keys.

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The Effect of Atmosperical Aridity on the Changes of Quantitative Parameters of Horticultural and Arable Crops
40-45

The occurence of atmospherical drought causes serious water-supply problems in the most cases of our domestic agricultural plant species. This paper was studied, how can we quantificate the atmospherical drought, with the help of a low input (relative humidityof the air, temperature) index. If this index (LSZI) characterized the atmospherical d...rought well, it will suitable to estimate the yield amount of agricultural plants.
The index elaborated by the authors was tested on county average crop yield of 14 agricultural plant species. Moreover we compared the atmospherical drought index (LSZI) to other aridity parameters, how suitable for estimate the yield amount.
Result of experiments show that, the atmospherical drought index (LSZI) can be used well by several agricultural plant species in especially coern and sugar-beet to estimate yield amount. Excellent results were found by comparison to other aridity indexes, this means it is worth using in the aridity researches in the future.

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Optimization of Density of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Production Quotas by Pointwise Geostatistic Methods
46-50

The regional distribution of the Hungarian sugar beet production quotas was developed by the conventional concurrency relationships. In our research we analyzed 320 sectors of 9 factories with geostatistic methods in a GIS environment. The applied researches of spatial mean, spatial deviation, deviational ellipse have been introduced by us in t...his speciality. We used two different methods in our optimization inquiries, where the spatial segment of the standard deviational ellipse was based on a more robust preliminary data processing solution, and this is why it is a less parametricable method. The inquiry of the spatial buffer zones in production sectors ensures an obvious optimization possibility. We considered the supply route distances in both cases as a modeling boundary condition. Our results show that we introduced an effective decision making method to the occurent replanning of the production sectors with the pointwise density inquiries and the geometric analogy that was fitted to it.

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Investigation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Salt Tolerance and Callus Induction in vitro
51-55

Potato production plays an important role in Hungary and the other countries of Europe. Consumption of potato products has increased to a large extent during the past several years. We can satisfy market demands with high quality and virus-free varieties.
Results of potato production depend on tolerance/resistance to abiotic stresses. In man...y cases, increased concentration of NaCl causes yield loss. Selection of salt tolerant varieties proved to be a difficult problem. Nowadays, the salt tolerance of potato varieties can be determined by cell/tissue/ protoplast techniques. Somaclonal variation provides a great potential for selection of lines resistant to salt stress. In vitro shoots and callus, derived plantlets selected for salt tolerance/resistance provide material for micropropagation.
In vitro shoot development of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kuroda) was investigated under salt stress (40 mM, 80 mM, 120 mM NaCl) conditions. Shoot heights of plantlets cultured under salt conditions were lower than the control through the investigation. However, the shoot development of plantlets originated from in vitro meristems was almost at the same level as the control under 40 mM NaCl concentration.
There was no significant difference in the in vitro biomass production between control and treatment with 40 mM NaCl concentration. We measured a significant decrease in dry-matter mass under 120 mM NaCl concentration. There is a need for more investigation of different genotypes and for a conclusion as to whether in vitro tolerance could occur under in vivo circumstances in plants originated from somaclones as well.
Under in vitro conditions, we investigated shoot and leaf callus initiation using different culture media with different 2,4-D concentrations. Under dark conditions, callus induction of shoot/leaf decreased as the 2,4-D concentrations increased.
In light conditions, there was a little callus induction, while callus initiation from the shoot from 5 μM to 12 μM 2,4-D concentration showed a significant increase

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Spatially Continuous GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
56-61

The homogeneity of a study area of 20x20 m used for beetroot production in North-West Hungary was analysed with geo-statistical methods on the basis of measured plant and soil parameters. Based on variogram calculations (Equation 1 and 2), the yield surface showed homogeneity in North-South direction. Considering the results, decrease of sampli...ng distance to 17 m can be suggested. The direction of the variability of yield (Figure 1) could be modelled with a direction variogram based on analysis of the variogram surface. In the study, developed methodological processes are presented for the analysis of spatial relationship between measured production and soil parameters. 5 spatial evaluation methods for yield surface were compared (Table 1). On the basis of the analysed methods, it can be stated that different methods (LP, RBF) should be used when the reasons for locally extreme yields are in focus than in case when the yield surface of the whole area is estimated (IDW, GP). Using adequate parameters the kriging method is applicable for both functions. Similarly to the results of an ordinary Pearson correlation analysis, spatial correlation analysis was shown using soil pH and Cu concentration data. The results of cross variogram analysis (Equation 2) and the North-South direction of the variogram surface showed negative correlation (Figure 3). Based on simulation calculations, decrease of 30% in sampling points resulted in increase of 12% in error for the total sample number considering Cu concentration. The method provides a tool to decrease the cost of sampling and sample analyses of spatially correlating features, and to increase the reliability of spatial estimation using a better sampling strategy with the same sample number.

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Regional Development Differences in Hungary and the Northern-Great Plain Region
62-71

The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member... state, will get a new chance for underdeveloped regions, especially for the Eastern-Hungarian as well as the North Hungarian and North Plain Region.
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.

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