Évf. 14 szám 3-4 (2017)

Megjelent December 30, 2017

issue.tableOfContents65d7f6aa56cae

Tanulmányok

  • Gondolatok az élethez való jog és a jogellenességet kizáró okok viszonyáról
    3-9
    Megtekintések száma:
    146

    A modern polgári demokratikus berendezkedésű államokban az élethez való jog alkotmányos alapjog, mely a legnagyobb értéket, az emberi életet védi. Bár e jog elismerése és védelme megkérdőjelezhetetlen a modern társadalmakban, mégis számos esetben merülhet fel az élethez való jog korlátozhatóságának problematikája.

    Munkámban arra a kérdésre kerestem a választ, hogy az élethez való jog a jogellenességet kizáró okok tükrében korlátozható alapjognak tekinthető-e, avagy sem. Miután megvizsgáltam e jog megjelenését az Alkotmányban, illetve az Alaptörvényben, illetve megvizsgáltam a kapcsolatát a jogos védelemmel és a végszükséggel, arra jutottam, hogy ezek a jogellenességet kizáró okok kétség kívül az élethez való jog korlátait jelentik. 

    Az Alaptörvény újítása, hogy a jogos védelmet alapjogi szintre emelte. Az Alkotmány és a régi Btk. hatálya alatt sem volt vitás, hogy az élet ellen irányuló jogtalan támadás a támadó életének kioltása árán is elhárítható. A problémát az jelenti, ha az egymásnak feszülő jogi érdekek, a védett jogi tárgyak heterogének, mely eset fennállhat a tisztán vagyon elleni támadások esetén. Különösen problematikus az új Btk. által bevezetett szituációs jogos védelemnek az az esete, mely felhatalmazást ad a lakásba éjjel történő jogtalan behatolás esetén a behatoló életének kioltására. Mivel ebben az esetben nem tisztázott, hogy a támadás az élet, avagy a vagyoni javak ellen irányul, véleményem szerint helyesebb lett volna meghagyni a bírói szabad mérlegelés lehetőségét.

    A végszükséggel kapcsolatban a bizonyos hivatást űző személyek megítélése a problematikus, ugyanis a törvény kizárja e jog hatálya alól azokat, akiknek a veszély vállalása foglalkozásuknál fogva kötelességük. Tekintettel arra, hogy mind a jogos védelem, mind a végszükség megengedhetőségének indoka az, hogy az emberi természettel összeegyeztethető, jómagam nem látom indokát annak, hogy ebből a jogból bárki is ki legyen zárva.

    en
    104
  • A jogosulatlan pénzügyi tevékenység megítélése a közjegyzői gyakorlatban és összefüggése az okirat hamisítással
    10-27
    Megtekintések száma:
    38

    The unlawful providers destroy the trust, as well as in the lawful providers in the whole financial system. The adjudgement of the loan service by non financial providers can cause problem in the notarial practice. Namely the notary can just conclude of the frequency, for-profitnature and organization of the loan service provided by the parties statements.

    My present study gives a summary about the criminal facts and their analysis occur in the practice as well as to the notarial bench, who can be seen as non-proffessional connected to the criminal education. The article provides useful information, the reader gets an opportunity to analyse the unlawful financial service from the notarial aspect.

    347
  • Az orvos gyógyító tevékenységének polgári jogi vonatkozásai
    28-42
    Megtekintések száma:
    219

    The article wish to briefly cover the civil liability of the medic. The actuality of this topic is exemplified well by the fact that court trials for compensation of damages against healthcare providers show an increasing tendency year by year. It is deem important to briefly delineate the drawing of line between the civil and criminal liability during the presentation of the civil liability. After speaking about issues of drawing of line, the study is going to cover the effective liability for damages of the medic. While explaining the liability for damages of the medic, it will cover the concept of legal nature of invasive procedures, matters concerning the liability of healthcare institutions, and the basic topics of tort and contractual liability. The article is going to introduce the issues concerning illegality, the patient’s right to self-determination, his or her right to information, the obligation of medics to disclose information, in addition to matters related to the concept of the legal nature of informed consent along with the connected judicial practice in the chapter about the informed consent of the patient. As for closure, during the analysis of issues regarding evidence, it wish to cover the rules of culpability, the choice for healing methods of medics, and medical documentation, respectively.

    149
  • Pillanatfelvétel a képmás védelméhez fűződő jog bírói gyakorlatáról 2. rész
    43-54
    Megtekintések száma:
    140

    Die Persönlichkeitsrechte, insbesondere das Recht am eigenen Bild stehen in den letzten Jahrzehnten im Fokus der Rechtsliteratur und der Judikatur. In unserer digitalisierten Welt ist die Möglichkeit  des Missbrauchs von Fotos und mit dem Bildnis der Menschen bedeutend gewachsen, die Privatsphäre ist in Gefahr. Das Aussehen der Menschen – dessen Teil auch das Bildnis ist – ist die erstmalige Form der  Erscheinung der Unterscheidung der Menschen in der Gesellschaft. Der Missbrauch mit dem Recht an eigenen Bild hat verschiedene Manifestationen: die Herstellung der Aufnahmen ohne Genehmigung, die Veröffentlichung und andere Verwendung der Fotos, die Modifizierungen der Aufnahmen ohne Genehmigung, weiterhin die Übergabe der Aufnahmen an andere Personen und das Abspielen der Aufnahmen.

    Gemäß den Regelungen des Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuches ist zur Anfertigung und Verwendung eines Bildes oder einer Tonaufnahme die Zustimmung der betroffenen Personen erforderlich. Eine Ausnahme davon bilden die Massenaufnahmen und die Aufnahmen von Auftritten im öffentlichen Leben. Das neue BGB (Gesetz Nr. V. von 2013) hat die vorherige Judikatur in den Text des Gesetzes eingebaut, und betont, dass nicht nur zur Anfertigung, sondern auch zur Verwendung eines Bildes die Zustimmung der betroffenen Personen erforderlich ist.

    Grundlegend ist die Aufgabe der Judikatur die Bestimmung der Grenzen der rechtsmäßigen und die unrechtsmäßigen  Anfertigung und Verwendung der Aufnahmen. Die Rechtspraxis hat ausgearbeitet, was man unter Bildnis versteht, was die Voraussetzungen der Zustimmung zur Anfertigung eines Bildes sind, welche die Formen der Zustimmung sind, was man unter Massenaufnahmen versteht, und wann man über Aufnahmen von Auftritten im öffentlichen Leben sprechen kann.

    Dieses Schreiben bietet ein umfassendes Bild über das Recht und die Judikatur am eigenen Bild, detailliert und analysiert die Rechtverletzungen dieses Rechtes und die Sanktionen der Verletzungen, und gibt einen Überblick der anderen Aspekte dieses Rechtes, insbesondere präsentiert es die Fragen der Anfertigung der Tonaufnahmen bei Zivil- und Strafgerichtsverhandlungen, die Vorschriften des Datenschutzgesetzes, und die Praxis der Beobachtung mit Kamera.

    Der erste Teil dieses Schreibens wurde im Erinnerungsbuch für den 65. Geburtstag von Herrn Prof György Csécsy veröffentlicht und in dem zweiten Teil des genannten Schreibens stehen die Fragen des Datenschutzes im Fokus gemäß der Regelungen des Info–Gesetzes (Gesetz Nr. CXIII von 2011), und das Problem der Anfertigung der Tonaufnahmen an Arbeitsplätzen, an öffentlichen Plätzen, in den Massenverkehrsmitteln und in den Gesellschaftshäusern werden vom Urheber ebenso geprüft. Der zweite Teil des Artikels beschäftigt sich mit den speziellen Regelungen der Zivilprozessordnung, und macht die wirksame Normen des Abschnitts von XXI/A der Zivilprozessordnung (Gesetz Nr. III. von 1952), die Anomalien  der Bildnis-Verfahren bekannt, auch mit Rücksicht auf die neue Prozessverordnung (Gesetz Nr. CXXX von 2016).

    Am Ende des Artikels hat der Urheber festgesellt, dass die gesetzlichen Regelungen über den Schutz der Rechte am eigenen Bild einheitliche Judikatur ermöglichen, mit Rücksicht darauf, dass die Rechtspraxis bei der Auflösung der Rechtsstreiten die bürgerrechtlichen Aspekte betont, wo die verfassungsrechtlichen, datenschutzrechtlichen Aspekte im Hintergrund stehen. Der Artikel kritisiert die Einführung und das Anbehalten des speziellen Prozesstyps, d.h. der Bildnis-Prozess.

    119
  • „Köz”jegyző az egyházban
    55-65
    Megtekintések száma:
    77

    The current, traditional Latin-type civil law notaries do not exist within the organisation of the Roman Catholic Church. However, the ecclesiastical “notary” and the concept, function and activities of the civil law notary may be related, and even made parallel, which may support the idea of some common origin or development. My article discusses the reason why we may still speak of persons having quasi notarial competence within the church. Also, it purportsto describe the diplomatic mission of the Vatican, the tasks of the embassy, touching on the issue of legalization as well; moreover, it draws a parallel between the ecclesiastical clerk and the civil law notary from the aspect of civil legal principles, such as impartiality and independence, comparing them also in terms of appointment and similar elements concerning attestations. It covers the rules governing the preparation of instruments and the certification of copies in more detail, as well as the procedural function of the ecclesiastical clerk, the similarities concerning archives and the custody of documents, and finally presents the issue of removability and termination of office.

    83
  • Családon belüli erőszak egy irodalmi mű alapján. (Móricz Zsigmond: „A világ végén már szép és jó”)
    66-76
    Megtekintések száma:
    458

    In my study I am going to present a rather complicated issue, namely a few problems of domestic violence based on a less-known short story by the Hungarian writer Zsigmond Móricz. I chose this story because it is still relevant today, it could even be set in 2017, as it basically depicts domestic violence in its complexity. This story by Móricz proves that the phenomenon of domestic violence is not at all new, given that in the beginning or the middle of the 20th century we can see the same complex social problem which present-day criminal law has to face. Hungarian society 50 or 100 years ago was not exempt from domestic violence either. We may also claim that the factors enhancing domestic violence were even stronger than today. The story aligns several dimensions of domestic violence, as it shows examples of both child and wife abuse. I am going to analyse the crimes depicted by Móricz according to the criminal laws effective today, and I just tangentially touch upon the judgment of the offences in the age of writing. This way, first I analyse the questions of child abuse, focusing on the right of punishment, which is still relevant in today’s criminal system as a cause for miscarriage. Then I present a detailed analysis of the bearing of case of partner abuse in the framework of violence in relationships, which exists in Hungarian criminal law since 2013.

    1297
  • A magyar kollektív munkajog egyes jogértelmezési kérdéseiről
    77-87
    Megtekintések száma:
    50

    The primary and outstanding legal policy objective of Act I of 2012 on the Labour Code (hereinafter Mt. with its Hungarian abbreviation) is to extend the opportunities of collective autonomy and the regulatory role of agreements concluded between entities subject to collective labour law. With a view to this, the content of the legal institution has been significantly altered, establishing a „complex system” of specific rules that are instrumental in generating a system. The Labour Code is very often characterised as an especially complex piece of legislation, a „law intended for lawyers”, though it is one of the laws that are widely referred to and used, applied by people other than lawyers, including the classic actors (entities) of collective labour law. Below I will underline five regulatory „contradictions” in the area of collective labour law, which due to the lack of sufficient clarity and various ways of possible interpretation might become the source of legal disputes and conflicts of interest between the entities of collective labour law. These critical observations and proposals - which are far from being exhaustive - are related to the conclusion, amendment and termination of collective agreements, and the exercise of certain trade union rights.

    Thus, in the paper I will analyse the issues related to the conditions of collective agreements concluded by multiple employers from the perspective of workers (trade unions); the contradictions of the situation of the trade unions becoming entitled to conclude collective agreements subsequently; the possibilities for a trade union losing its capacity to conclude collective agreements and its consequences for the workers (the rate of unionisation dropping below 10% at the employer concerned); the problems related to the various levels of hierarchy in trade union structures; and finally, I will discuss issues of establishing and calculating the working time allowance, the grounds for and problems of its application.

    62
  • Drónok a horizonton, gyerekjáték vagy új veszélyes üzem?
    88-107
    Megtekintések száma:
    95

    The reason why We have chosen this topic for my research is that new technologies have appeared in our environment, particularly the unnamed aerial vehicle. In Hungary, similarly to some other countries, there is a gap in the legislation concerning the use of UAV.

    The UAV technology raises many questions because these vehicles can be used for several reasons. It is necessary to analyse in depth the legal environment of UAV and to change our perspective because it is not enough to consider the legal context; technical and other aspects have to be taken into consideration as well.

    Most academic sources concerning the usage of UAV focus on the military use of UAV. In my research I focus on the topic from the aspects of civil law; the reason for this is that I consider the legal restrictions concerning the ordinary vehicles used for everyday purposes not for governmental ones.

    The main goal of our paper is to study how the usage of UAV can be legally controlled. This question is important because the number of these vehicles are gradually growing which leads to several legal issues, for instance privacy or tort.

    In our research We have analyzed the international laws and regulation plans, the international laws, draft legislation. The „abnormally dangerous activities” that appear in the title of the paper is only a call for attention to evaluate the liability in the civil law.

    The other aim of our paper is to make a proposal to set up a work group who is going to work out the regulations in detail. Legislators and researchers could participate in the work group, among whom are technical and legal professionals as well.

    120

Hallgatói tanulmányok

  • A Digitális Egységes Piaci Stratégia szerződési jogi hatásai a magyar polgári jogra
    108-120
    Megtekintések száma:
    109

    The necessity of framing contract law fulfilling the expectations of the digital era is among the main purposes of the Digital Single Market Strategy, that has been introduced by the European Committe in 2015. Within the Strategy two directive proposals have been presented: the directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects concerning contracts for the supply of digital content and the directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects concerning contracts for the online and other distance sales of goods. These include the concept of conformity with the contract, the meaning of which raises several questions to be answered regarding the Hungarian legal system.

    My treatise focuses on the investigation of the criteria of conformity with the contract with special regard to the definiton of the directive proposals. In the first place I outline the elements of conformity with the contract, then I attempt to create a comprehensive definition of it. Thereafter I analyse the rules of the Hungarian Civil Code that are connected to the category of the conformity. Furthermore, I investigate the necessity of the integration of the conformity with the contract into the the Hungarian civil law. Finally, I present a future legislative concept that could be regarded as a possible way of adaptation of this legal category.

    97
  • Kísérlet a poena extraordinaria egy jelentésének feltárására a 18. század második felének debreceni ítélkezési gyakorlatában
    121-135
    Megtekintések száma:
    120

    In my essay I analyze a possible semantic content of poena extraordinaria. Int the first part of the study can be found on interpretation concerning the different meanings of poena ordinaria and poena extraordinaria. In my hypothesis I suppose if the crime hasn't been entirely proved by accuser then the judge has to apply the category of poena extraordinaria. I examine three criminal brief of cases from Debrecen at 18th century in the second part; trying to verify my hypothesis.

    89