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  • The Kulmian letters patent of the Teutonic Order of 1233

    This study subjects to scrutiny the articles of the Kulmian letters patent of 1233 which determined the conditions of private and public law in the would-be state of the Teutonic Order in Prussia. The Kulmer Handfeste had laid down, at the same time, the privileges facilitating planned settlement prior to the conquest of Prussian lands. This diploma ruled on the conditions pertaining to the order of succession, the size of plots, the system of field utilization, fishing and hunting rights as well as those of criminal law and court procedures. It determined the privileges as well as the obligations linked to land-grants while it also determined the conditions of providing for the sustenance of parishes, as well as the currency of the future Teutonic state.

  • The Lombars' Move into Italy

    The present study disputes stereotypes in historical scholarship related to the Lombards’ move into Italy and takes a position contrary to those common views. It calls into question the idea that the Lombards entered Italy as ruthless conquerors and holds the view that they moved into Italy from Pannonia not unlike the foederati in the late Roman Empire on the basis of an agreement concluded with the Romans. The author disputes the idea that King Alboin set out on this journey together with all his people in a single move in the spring of 568, and maintains on the grounds of various logistical considerations that the Lombards migrated to Italy in a number of groupings (so-called farae) stretched over a longer period of time and along diverse routes.