“Netherlandicas” – Calvinist Relics from the 17th Century Holland

In my paper I analysed what kind of images of Holland might have occurred in the heads of the Hungarian Calvinist visitors in 17th century. I established seven types of visitors to demonstrate the choices of Hungarian Calvinists as for what objects i.e. relics they brought home or what objects they recalled in their memoirs when they called back their experiences in Holland. It contains 8 types of “netherlandicas”, 8 several images of Holland which can also be demonstrated the image the Hungarian travellers had of Holland when they started out. In their memoirs also figured an experience of Holland, and these objects (i. e. a statue, a book) recalled how Holland had been seen by these Hungarian Students, Pastors and Diplomats. At the beginning of the examined period the Hungarian students usually stayed one or two weeks or months in Holland in the course of their journey through Europe. Later on they spent some terms there and in the second third of the century some students spent long years in Holland. And in that period many evidences were left behind (travel diaries, album amicorum, editions, possessor-entries, letters, memoirs on the life and sights in Holland).

Hongaarse studenten in Groningen

The University of Groningen played en important role in the Hungarian peregrinatio academica. 290 Hungarian and Transylvanian students enrolled the university between 1627 and 1795. The frequency of visiting this university was influenced by political and economic circumstances: the persecution of Protestants in Hungary, wars, and disallowance of studying abroad caused by economic restrictions. The Groningen University took care of its citizens; it had its own court, canteen etc. According to archival sources, Hungarians were summoned to the university court a couple of times. The most frequent reason was debt to the landlord or landlady. There is also one case known when a Hungarian was expelled from the university due to a rape attempt against a local girl. Luckily, the most Hungarians behaved properly and received financial support from the university for paying their meal in the canteen, publishing their disputations, and covering the costs of their journey back home.