Hungary’s intention to join the EU makes it necessary to adopt, introduce and use the EU system of law. In Hungary, the legal control of animal welfare has improved (XXVIIIth law in 1998); however, most of our pig farms do not meet the EU animal welfare law requirements for some reason. We examined 9 pig farms in Hajdú-Bihar, Borsod-Abaúj-Z...emplén and Heves counties. We chose those farms which use the combined breeding
technology most frequently used in Hungary. The most important part of the welfare directive is the definition of the minimum space per animal. We analysed the data in comparison with EU laws. On the basis of the analysis, it can be said that there is a narrow cross-section: the breeding of piglets. During the cost analysis, we analysed cost and highlighted the permanent cost. We studied how these costs would change if EU animal welfare laws were observed. We also examined the specific data per 1 sow and per 1 kilogram of slaughter pig. We compared the present data (1999) with those we get if EU animal welfare laws concerning minimal space per pig were now followed. It can be stated that after decreasing the sow live-stock in accordance with EU directives, the permanent cost would increase by 17,7% per sow. If the required space per sow were provided, the total cost per sow would increase by 1,9% from 421,1 thousand forints to 429 thousand forints, on average. This would mean a decrease of 7,9
thousand forints profit per sow. As with the decrease of the number of sows, the number of slaughter pigs also decreases. Total cost per 1 kg of slaughter pig would increase from 214,7 forints to 218,2 on average.
The author investigated 153 lambs of nine genotypes originating from breeding flocks, and 50 lambs originating from production flocks. The investigations were performed between 1995 and 1998. The authors discuss the evaluation of comformation and fat cover according to EUROP standards. The authors also investigate the proportion of valuable mea...t by genotype, and – out of the internal value indicators – the dry-matter, protein, fat, connective-tissue and hemin contents comparing the flavour, aroma, tenderness, and oven loss of the different genotypes.
The following findings should be highlighted:
♦ The Hungarian Merino breed should be improved, as – according to EUROP standards, more than 70% of these animals were rated as quality „R”.
♦ Hungarian fattening technology has to be preserved, as the lambs reach the desired slaughter weight within a short period of time, and without over-fattening.
♦ Readiness for slaughter, typical of each genotype, has to be defined, and slaughter at proper weight be achieved.
♦ It has to be re-evaluated whether the Hungarian Merino is the only breed which can be used in Hungary, as none of the investigations really proved the special characteristics and significance of this breed.
The author summarizes the findings of the investigation in five tables.
Mechanisms of regulation of litter size in pigs are complex and depend on many factors, including genetic regulation and also physiological and anatomical development of the reproductive tract in gilts. Improvement of growth rate in present breed pigs raises the question as to whether, with the development of the reproductive tract, sexual matu...rity would also be attained.
The aim of the study was to assess the morphometric traits of reproductive tracts taken from gilts slaughtered at 100 kg body weight, i. e., just when they may become actively sexual mature.
This study was concluded on 80 prepubertal gilts of the Polish Landrace (PL) breed tested at the Pig Program Testing Station. The animals were kept in individual pens with control feeding and standard management. They were slaughtered after attaining 100 kg body weight. Immediately after slaughter, the reproductive tract was removed and carefully assessed. The morphometric estimation of the reproductive tract involved the
measurement of uterus weight with ligament, vagina-cervix length, uterine horns and oviducts length, ovaries weight, height and width. Uterus volume capacity was also determined, based on volumetric method of Kwaśnicki’s (1951) with own modification.
All pigs were divided into three groups in respect to age at slaughter: A – below 160 days (n=38), B – from 160 to 180 days (n=28) and C – above 180 days of age (n=14). The results were elaborated statistically computing the arithmetic means (x) for every traits and standard deviations (s). One-way analysis of variance ANOVA was performed. The significance of differences between age groups was estimated using Duncan’s test.
Calculations were performed with STATISTICA 8PL Software.
Obtained results are presented in the tables below. The most pronounced differences in the development of the reproductive tract are dependent on the age of gilts concerning only the uterus weight (P≤0.01) and uterus vagina-cervix length (P≤0.05). Gilts at age 160-180 days attained the full stage of reproductive tract development. Differences between the compared age groups of gilts dealing with the other morphometric traits
and ovary characteristics were statistically not significant.
In our examination, we evaluated Hungarian Merino (ram n=30, ewe n=30), Ile de France F1 (ram n=10, ewe n=10) and Suffolk F1 (ram n=10, ewe n=10) lambs. The best fattening performance was shown by the Ile de France F1 lambs (361 g/day). After the fattening period, Hungarian Merino, Ile de France F1 and Suffolk F...1 genotypes lambs were slaughtered with a live weight of 30-34 kg. Carcasses were evaluated for dressing percentage, weight of valuable carcass cuts, percentage of valuable meat, bone to meat ratio, as well as meat conformation and fat cover (S/EUROP grading).
The slaughter performance proved to be the best for the Suffolk F1 concerned dressing percentage (51,7%), percentage valuable carcass cuts (81,9%). The best percentage valuable meat presented (79,4%) the Ile de France F1 lambs. The best meat conformation and fat covered were in the Suffolk F1 lambs; Hungarian Merinos showed less favourable results.
Presently, the results derived from Hungarian practice that Hungarian Merino lambs are not eligible for fattening to great live body weight (30 kg). Therefore, it is necessary to revise the Hungarian Merino lambs with meat sheep breeds.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The H-FABP gene was defined as a potential candidate gene influencing the fat deposition traits, primarily the intramuscular fat content. The aim of this study is to define whether the previously reported gene mutations are connected with the slaughter traits measured in a standard slaughterhouse. The study included data from 405 gilts and barrows from 2 different samples. The two chosen mutation (HFABP1: c. 103 T>C, HFABP2: c. 1970 T>C) were detected in one reaction with PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism) method with HinfI restrictoin enzyme. The allel frequencies are as follows: 103T(H)=0.75; 103C(h)=0.25, 1970T=0.32; 1970C=0.68. A HFABP1 mutation has significant effect on backfat thickness and lean meat % at stable 1 (sample 1), but there were no effect at stable 2 (sample 2). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on HFABP2 genotype did not reveal significant differences. Based on this study we can’t get a clear conclusion on the impact of polymorphisms on production parameters. In the examined flock the allele frequency of mutation in 5 'UTR is identical to the literature data, i. e. the more favorable variant regarding the intramuscular fat content is predominant in the population.
Our College has been dealing with the crossbreeding of two Hungarian speckled hen breeds, the bare-neck and the featheredneck, to maintain the breeds since 1977. Apart from the gene preservation, we endeavour to find the best way for the production-purpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens ca...n be used in small-scale egg production. As for meat production, these pure-breds cannot compete with the various types of the colour-feathered hybrid constructions available in Hungary. On the basis of the results of the cross-breeding with cock-lines of various hybrid types for direct production purposes we can conclude that the Hungarian speckled hen is suitable as a mother line to produce meat-type chickens in alternative breeding systems.
The 15-20% of the by-products of meat – and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50-70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin cont...ent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pretreatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method.
Our applied treatments were based on biogas production, which is a possible utilization method. In the IFA (TULLN) Environmental Biotechnology Institute the feather was homogenized, and – according to the previous examinations – the most effective 1:2 feather-distilled water ratio or 1% NaOH-solution was used, and then treated with microwave (70, 130, 160 °C) during 1 hour time period. DM% and oDM% content was analyzed in the original samples, and the pH, Carbon-, Nitrogen-content in the output, too. Based on the received correlation coefficients (R) and related significance values (Sig.) I concluded, that the C-, N-content and the pH values weren’t influenced by any of the additives. The temperature
affected all three tested factors. The temperature showed a strong coherency with the N-content and the pH value when distilled water was used and weak-medium coherency with the Carboncontent. With NaOH-solution treatment the temperature gave strong coherency with the C- and N-content, as well as medium coherency with the pH. Our objective was to determine the method with effectively the pre-treating of poultry feather for biogas production or composting and to prepare of the treated samples for N and C analyzing. Our next aims will be the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feather for biogas production.
The cost of products changes not only seasonally in relation to time, but also follows a hectic motion. It is necessary for the farmers to calculate in advance the size of the future income, which is one of the basic conditions of the economical production. Many authors have examined the change of the prices but since the tendency of the change... of the prices can be only rarely observed purely by itself, therefore it is difficult to separate it. During my research I examined how the monthly prices of corn and the monthly buying prices of pigs for slaughter have changed since 1991 and how much their future value will be. I examined how much is the α factor wich gives the minimal residual variation in case of the Brownian dual exponential smoothing and the corrected dual exponential smoothing and how will the future (2002) prices, which were in this way calculated, change compared to their real market prices.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to define the connection between the leptin (LEP) gene T3469C polymorphism and its potential association with production traits in improved hybrid pigs. The study included data from 397 gilts and barrows from 2 different sample. The polymorphism was identified by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method with HinfI restriction enzyme. Two alleles of LEP gene were identified: T (0.93) an C (0.07). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on LEP genotype did not reveal significant (P≤0.05) differences. In the examination the loin diameter (between the 2nd and 3rd ribs), the live weight at slaughter and the averege daily gain during fattening were higher at pigs with C allele than pigs with TT genotipe. Accordingt to our data the effect of C allele was favourable in this population, because these animals had bigger bodyweight without valuable change of lean meat percent.
The Hungarian sheep sector has become a one-market sector, almost the whole amount of slaughter lamb went to Italy, which increased its defenselessness. In addition to the sole Italian market showing a permanent demand for Hungarian lambs, it would worth to exploit possibilities in other European markets considering the seasonal differences in...Italian prices. Such markets can be the Spanish and Greek for ”light” and the French, German and English markets for ”heavy” lambs. Both the Italian and Hungarian prices have three major periods: Easter, Ferragusto and Christmas. Due to the changes in the prices, the producers often suffer great losses, therefore, the temporal adaptation of production, market research, technological and development activities need to be improved. It is important that the living of Hungarian sheep breeders should not be dependent solely upon the Italian market, distribution of products should be ensured in other markets too, so that the safety of sales be increased and higher prices and higher income could be achieved. The European lamb prices are characterized by large seasonal fluctuation and the degree and timing of changes are different in the different countries. Study of the literature and the results obtained in my study on lamb sales called for an analysis and study of the possibilities of price forecasting. In my study, I performed a forecasting of lamb prices in Hungary and Italy for the period between 1996 and 2006 based on the data of the European Committee. Among the forecasting methods, seasonal decomposition and SARIMA models are the most precise, producers can achieve a better market position by using these in the practice.
Ostrich has been reared in Hungary for decades, but we have limited information on this species. The aim of this review was to provide a concise description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) based on international studies. We were to investigate some of the most relevant parameters, such as egg, meat and skin production. In this critical re...view we managed to sum up the most significant features and productivity parameters of ostrich and effecting factors. So as to make an accurate description of the species we have to know its morphological, behavioural and physiological characteristics. Ostrich is a very special bird with special nutritional and environmental requirements. Ostrich products, regarding egg, meat and skin are considered luxury products not only in Hungary but also abroad. Though egg has a significant nutritional value, it is mainly used for hatching chicks. In Europe we can expect roughly 40–50 eggs from a hen yearly. Ostrich has a lean meat with high protein and low fat and sodium content, moreover it is rich in minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Having these advantageous qualities, ostrich meat should be part of our healthy diet. Skin production is not important in our country, but there is a special demand for high quality ostrich leather globally. In the future our aim is to conduct a research on some of the parameters. As low production rate and embryo mortality is a great deal of problem in ostrich industry, we need to investigate the incubation environment. There is an apparent disagreement among researchers on optimal slaughter age. This is also an area for further investigation. The value of skin and effecting factors on our climate as well as adaptability of the species are also worth for further investigation together with the nutrition what differs from other ostrich breeding countries. Nowadays, there is a great emphasis placed on animal welfare too.
The 15–20% of the by-products of meat- and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50–70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin con...tent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pre-treatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method. The microbiological and enzymatic degradation of feather to soluble protein and amino acids is a very favourable and relatively cheap opportunity to produce valuable products of the resulting feather. Our applied treatments were based on the determination of the most effective method, which is able to follow the biodegradation of waste poultry feather.
Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The secto...r is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income.
An observational retrospective study was done to provide up-to-date information on recent sow removal patterns from 9 breed-wean herds of Midwest USA. The study comprised of sow’s removal reasons and removal types of F1 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts entered in the herds between 1st Jan 2014 and 31st July 2016. Data was extr...acted from existing database on Dec 2018 and 15% of the sows were still active in the herds hence not included in the study. Descriptive statistics showed that out of the 20,009 removed sows, planned removals comprised of farrowing productivity (FP) 3,523 (17.6%) and old age (OA) 1,785 (8.9%) while unplanned removals consisted of reproductive failure (RF) 7,786 (38.9%), health problems (HP) 2,629 (13.1%), locomotion problems (LP) 1,473 (7.4%) and conformation issues (CI) 1,350 (6.8%).‘Did not conceive’ and “No heat” were observed as the main contributing factors accounting for 37.6% and 32.9% respectively for gilts & sows removed by RF.13.5% of the gilts (Parity 0) were removed from the herds before attaining their first litter of which 64.1% of their removals was due to RF. Removal type consisted of slaughter (S) 85.0%, found dead on the farm (DoF) 10.8% and euthanized (E) 4.2%. The research findings depict an upward trend of sow RF removals in the US swine herds posing a serious concern for US swine producers. Characterization and quantification of sow removals gives a revelation on the deeper intrigues about the vulnerability of the various parity in respect to common causes of RF. This helps swine producers to decisively improve on gilt replacement selection, reproductive efficiency, health and nutrition management all aimed at increasing overall swine productivity and efficiency in management. Swine farmers in the US can now focus their efforts towards curbing unnecessary RF removal within parity specifics.
The contractile protein, which is encoded by troponin I 1 (TNNI1) gene, is located on the thin filaments of slow fibres in striated muscle. TNNI1 protein is a part of the troponin complex which plays an important role in regulation of muscle contraction by preventing actin-myosin interaction in absence of calcium. According to biological role,...this gene can be potential marker for meat production related traits. The aim of this study is to define whether the previously reported gene polymorphism (EU743939:g.5174T>C) is connected with the slaughter traits measured in a standard slaughterhouse of the examined four-line European hybrid. The study included data from 404 gilts and barrows from 2 different samples. The polymorphism was detected using PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method with XbaI restriction enzyme. In this study the allele frequencies were found as follows: C: 0.84 and 0.808; T: 0.16 and 0.192. Based on result of the present study no significant impact of polymorphisms on production parameters was found.