Comparison of major population parameters of Brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1758) in two hunting fields of the Great Hungarian Plain69-74Views:131
Hungarian stock of game is not only part of our national treasure but also one of our domestic products and economic income. Not indifferent therefore the number and the state of health of our wildlife. Population decline of the Brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1758) (one of our most important small game in Hungary) takes a long time. Demographic parameters of Brown hare was examined, particularly the factors affecting the decline of the species in Hungary. We took samples from typical habitats where the Brown hare could be found in relatively high density in our country. The article reports data of reproductive characteristics, diseases, parasites of Brown hare and other factors such as climatic and anthropogenic which could influence of the population dynamics. We mention sample collection and processing methods eg: population size estimates, examination of reproductive organs, the sex ratio and the age structure as well as the individual condition based on data of domestic and foreign authors and our partial results.
Investigations of Thrips tabaci and Aeolothrips intermedius population dynamics in tobacco plantations121-127Views:176
Studies were conducted between 2015 and 2017 with yellow sticky traps in seven tobacco plantations. The purpose was to determine when and in what numbers onion thrips individuals can settle into tobacco plantations. The primary objective of the study was to determine the proper timing of chemical treatments, furthermore, the determination of crucial factors that can influence the population dynamics of Thrips tabaci.
Ideas on the European stone fruit yellows – as an entomologist can see them30-34Views:171
The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) is an important endemic disease in Europe which causes in both, the Mediterranean countries and Central Europe serious damage. Its pathogen is the ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’. The treatment and healing of the diseased trees and plantations with chemicals do not promise success. Thus, prevention may be the only solution. The transmission and spread of the pathogen happen by infected propagation material (grafting) or a vector (the psyllid, Cacopsylla pruni). Mechanism of the pathogen’s transmission and population dynamics of the vector have been extensively investigated in several European countries, which may allow by the control of C. pruni even to hold back the disease. Diseased stone fruit trees and wild Prunus spp. as main host species play an important role in maintaining and spreading the pathogen. C. pruni collects the pathogen by feeding on these plants and it carries persistently ‘Ca. P prunorum’. Researchers in Hungary have been characterized the disease only in terms of plant pathology, but neither the significance of the vector nor the role of wild Prunus spp. have been studied. This summary intends to give clues to these researches, that not only axe and saw should be the instruments of national control, but knowing the role and population dynamics of the vector the stone fruit production should be more successful.
The importance of predator species in the population dynamics of the Brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) – Literature review43-49Views:172
One of the conditions for successful small game management is the good management of predator species. The predator species play an important role in the sustainable utilization of the domestic brown hare populations. A portion of these species are under nature protection and with the rest of the species can be utilizing by the wildlife management professionals. Important prey species of brown hares: perspective are red fox, domestic dog and domestic cat. Based on latest date of the National Game Management Database in hunting bags increasing every year the number of the European badger, the stone marten and the golden jackal. In Hungary the brown hare’s most important predator bird species are common buzzard, marsh-harries and goshawk. The human race is not only as a top predator affects the number of the population of brown hares with the wildlife management but indirectly with traffic, (soil cultivation, mowing, and pest control) as well. The control of predators is absolutely necessary for successful small game management, but without sufficient habitat size and habitat development it is hardly sufficient.
Effect of cadmium and zinc contamination on the population dynamics of soil microorgani73-77Views:103
Changes in the population dynamics of microorganisms in a soil artificially contaminated with various doses of cadmium and zinc was examined from a quantitative point of view, under laboratory circumstances. The research was based on a chernozem soil originating from the area of a long-term microelement contamination model experiment (Nagyhörcsökpuszta, Hungary), which was carried out during 1991 in the Experimental Site of the Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Researche Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. According to the amount of bacteria, microscopic fungi and nitrifying bacteria, it can be stated that the effect of contamination can be observed even in the perspective of nearly two decades. In more cases significant changes in the number of soil bacteria and microscopic fungi could be observed, and the nitrification activity increased in case of both microelements. Therefore the further research of changes in microbial activity of these soils can provide novel scientific results.
The effect of lead and copper heavy metal salts on soil microorganisms under laboratory circumstances55-59Views:135
he population dynamics of calcareous chernozem soils polluted with different concentrations of lead and copper heavy metal saline solutions was examined.
Complex assessment of inland water fish stocks74-80Views:67
In the domestic fish production, natural waters have yielded for several years about 7-8 thousand tons. This, from the point of view of outputs, considering the almost 130 thousand hectares of natural water, is rather low, it means approximately 55-60 kg/ha mixed fish.Although the various natural waters can differ significantly on the basis of yields, yet on the majority of the territories, the results were low. In the case of our extensive still waters and rivers, the reason can undoubtedly be found in the combined effect of the lack of the possibility of reproduction of the fish stock and the over-fishing. Fishery built on planning supposes the best possible knowledge in the given circum stances of the parameters of the water area and its fishstock. Lacking this knowledge, it is not possible to establish the optimal use fulness of the resources, what is more, the management can make faulty decisions – as a result of a lack of information -, which can risk the success of later activities.
It is known that many factors have an impact on the success of the fishery, as well as some information in connection with the water area and the fish stock are necessary, the knowledge of which make it possible to manage the fishery in a planned way. One part of the information is available, while the other part is incomplete or not deep enough. The necessary data are dissimilar depending on their nature, can be obtained from different places, by different methods.
As the first step for executing the field surveys and processing data, I developed a complex model, which contains in a unified system the steps of estimating the fishstock. I made the sampling on the basis of this. Part of the model is a fish faunistic survey, as well as a morphological survey of the water area. The information gained from these are important for making more accurate the system of devices of the samplings for stock estimation (duration, number of net-rows) and for assigning its place (places representing the best way the physical characteristics of the given water area). The major stages of stock-survey: A) faunistic survey, B) physical survey of the bed, and C) sampling with the help of gill-nets. This is followed by the evaluation by the computer module.
The results of the research create a methodological and technical background for the fish faunistic and population biologic surveys still performed in different ways in our country, and by applying these methods together, all basic information about natural waters which help decision-making concerning fisheries can be obtaine deffectively.
Analysis of the genetic origin of European hare (Lepus europaeus) (technical literature review)49-54Views:133
Fossil datas showed that the lagomorphs appeared in Asia during the later Eocene and leporids separated from ochotonids during the Oligocen or Upper Eocene. During the Pleistocene, climatic changes induced major shifts in species distributions, forcing them to refugia.
In Europe, the continuous oscillations led to the production of greater subspecific and specific diversity in the southern peninsulas (Iberia, Italy, Balkan) which were the main refugial areas for other species as well. Evolution, phylogeny and population genetics of the Lagomorpha species are still poorly known and the taxonomic distinction is still unclear for some species. Conservation genetics is the discipline which use genetic techniques and analysis methods to preserve species and dynamics. Usually it is working together with population genetics what role is to investigate the origin, the maintenance, the organization and the causes of genetic variation between natural populations. In the present study I reviewed the results of origin and phylogenetic studies of Brown hare populations from the last decades.
Integrated nutrient supply and varietal difference influence grain yield and yield related physio-morphological traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) varieties under drought condition111-121Views:101
The ever-growing world population entails an improvement in durum wheat grain yield to ensure an adequate food supply, which often gets impaired by several biotic and abiotic factors. Integrated nutrient management, such as nitrogen rate × foliar zinc × sulphur fertilization combined with durum wheat varieties were investigated in order to examine the dynamics of yield and yield related physio-morphological traits under drought conditions. The four durum wheat varieties, three-level of nutrient supply (i.e. control, sulphur, and zinc), and two nitrogen regimes (i.e. zero and 60 kg ha−1) were arranged in split-split plot design with three replications. Zinc and sulphur were applied as foliar fertilisation during the flag leaf stage, both at a rate of 3 and 4 liters ha-1, respectively. Results showed existence of genetic variability for grain yield, plant height, NDVI, SPAD and spike density. Foliar based application of zinc and sulphur at the latter stage improved the plant height. Nitrogen fertilized varieties with lower spike numbers showed to better yield formation. Co-fertilization of nitrogen and zinc improved grain yield of responsive varieties like Duragold by about 21.3%. Spikes per m2 were statistically insignificant for grain yield improvement. It could be inferred that the observed positive effect of sulphur, nitrogen and zinc application on physio-morphology and yield formation substantiates the need to include these essential nutrients in the cultivation system of durum wheat.
The dynamics of biodiversity structure of soil microorganisms under the impact of biopreparations during potato growing season67-74Views:137
The use of biological preparations such as Phytotsid and Planryz contributes the increase of the general number of soil bacteria population by 13.0–36.1% in the case of potato variety Scarbnytsya and by 4.5–24.6% for potato variety Oberig compared with control. It also increases the number of saprophyte microflora, which compete with plant pathogens, micromycetes, and causes 1.2–1.8 times reduction in the number of soil fungi – Fusarium and Alternaria. During the application of Rovral Akvaflo the Shannon ecological index of species biodiversity is lower than during the biopreparation use. The decrease of species biodiversity was observed as well as strengthening the dominance of some species (dark pigmentation in fungi).