The essay describes the rural system of areas as a system unit of mutually necessitating natural, social, economic and human environments. A new rural developmental model has been developed to achieve the effects that strengthen this system. The taxonomically interpreted effects are achieved through guiding projects. The author presents the con...nections of biomass – bioenergy generation to covey the message in practice.
The guiding principle for our research is that decentralized energy supply systems should be located near local consumers. One big, local market for energy from biogas plants in Hajdú-Bihar county is Debrecen. In the course of the investigation of biomass suitable for biogas production in the area of Debrecen, this study determines the quantit...y of biogas producible from animal manure. Municipalities around Debrecen were examined in circles with 40, 20 and 5 km radius. Livestock data of these settlements stem from the Agricultural Census in year 2000, actualized by the county trend of livestock changes. Manure quantity and biogas potential in these places are estimated with coefficients from the literature and our calculations. In the largest circle, about 1.4 million tons of manure is produced, from which round 94 million m3 biogas can be produced. Biomass produced in the settlements and producible biogas shows a remarkable trend of concentration, which supports our recommendation on the system of energy supply.
The transformation and utilization of organic materials must occur with the highest degree of environmental conformity. This conformity – in accordance with the guiding principles of the European Union – will result in a new economic and systematical approach. We can establish the profitability of projects with the utilization of surplus ef...fects which characterize multiple-product lines.
Tourism – especially ecotourism and health-tourism – could be one of the sectors which could make Hungary economically competitive after joining the European Union, by ensuring thousands of people employment possibilities, if they take advantage of local and regional opportunities. For this reason, it would be necessary to analyse the two t...ypes of tourism mentioned above, as well as to collect data and especially impressions concerning how these potentially lucrative sectors could best be structured and managed, as well as to predict their probable effects.
The most important objectives of my study are to introduce the values of Hortobágy, to analyse the present status of tourism in the Hortobágy National Park, and to make suggestions for increasing the numbers of tourists, by making Hortobágy more attractive.
As a resident of Debrecen, I visited the region several times and took part in programs at Hortobágy as well. I was always curious how the trip to the Hortobágy could be made more enjoyable.
My research was carried out with the help of questionnaires, which were made in three languages – Hungarian, English and German –. In August 2002, I approached foreign and Hungarian tourists in Hortobágy village, and asked them to fill them in. To evaluate the questionnaires, I used Microsoft Excel ’00. During the evaluation, I calculated distribution, arithmetic mean and deviation. Moreover, I obtained the level of significance.
My assumption that tourists visiting Hortobágy are “one-day” tourists, who are visiting the Hungarian Pusta because of an actual program, was supported by my research. I must emphasise that mostly passive tourism opportunities are offered in Hortobágy, where tourist are only external observers of the programs.
In order to change this situation, I suggested that visitors to Hortobágy can be encouraged to stay longer by offering them various programs, in which tourists are actively involved. My program recommendations include a craftsman’s house or tent, where the visitors can try to make typical folk instruments. Moreover, I made suggestions as to how to teach tourists to make Hungarian dishes. I also outlined several one-day program possibilities. Among the opportunities, I also mentioned the need to provide tourists possibilities to spend several days in a conventional Pusta life-style. To realise these things adequate infrastructure and information system should be developed.