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Alternative protein sources in the nutrition of farm animals
Published September 5, 2018
21-31

Protein requirement and its demand of farm animals became one of the critical problems in nutrition on a global scale. Protein requirement has been an explicit demand for a long period with soybean meal and animal protein, but recently there are some limitations in relation to their use and the availability of the high quality fishmeal decrease...s constantly. For this reason there is increased demand for finding new protein sources which could be the alternatives of soybean meal and fishmeal. Alternative protein sources can be divided into seven categories, according to their origin. In different countries, their use depends on the availability in large quantity and at reasonable price.

There is a long tradition of using legume seeds, as alternatives of soybean. Most of them contain some anti-nutritive compounds, but it can be reduced with systematic selection. Oilseed meals are also generally use in poultry and pig nutrition, but those crude protein content varied, depending on the oil extraction technology. Green fodder and leaf protein was also proposed as alternative protein sources, but their use is limited, in particular because of the market price. The amount of bioethanol and starch industry by-products increases gradually in recent years, therefore those became alternatives of soybean meal, or in much less extend, fishmeal. However, amino acid composition of such by-products are far from optimal for poultry and pig; therefore, in the case of their use amino acid supplementation is necessary. Several novel protein sources are proposed in the last decade, such as algae or insect proteins. Recently, their availability and use is limited, but in the near future those would be alternative protein sources in monogastric animal nutrition.

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The effect of biopreparations in pot experiment
Published March 20, 2013
45-49

In pot experiment the effect of Amykor and Organic Green Gold bioproducts and their combinations with NPK fertilizer on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass of testplant were studied. The experiment was set up in 2012 at the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block... design. The studied soil typein the pot experiment was humus sandy soil from Debrecen-Pallag with onion (Allium cepa) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 4 week) in our laboratory the samples of soil and plant were determined. The nitrate-nitrogen, AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green onion leaves, the wet weight of bulb and root of onion and biomass of onion. The results of the study were the following: – The treatments influenced positively the nitrate-nitrogen, the AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil. – The most effective treatments were the artificial fertilization (NO3-N) and the NPK+ simple dose of Amykor (AL-P2O5 and Al-K2O). – The NPK fertilization and the NPK+OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) combinations had significant positive effect on the weight of green onion leaves. – The biofertilization and the straw+biofertilizer combinations stimulated the AL-soluble potassium content of soil occasionally. – The OGG treatment (sprinkle in every 10 days) had significant effective impact on the wet weight of bulb and root of onion. – The biomass of onion was increased by the artificial fertilization and OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) treatment.

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Energy production systems of phototroph microorganisms (classification of photobioreactors)
Published December 22, 2010
35-39

In the field of alternative energy sources there is an argue in the comparison of its effects on the benefits and disadvantages to the economics and the environment. New studies are born which are in contradiction with each other. The demand for bioenergy feedstock is growing rapidly however there are the environmental problems caused by the ex...tending energy crop plantations. There is such a significant need for land to grow traditional energy crops on (rape, soy, palm-oil, sugarcane, etc.) that the food purpose agricultural capacity could be in danger. Probably the extensively
growing energy crops play a role in the very high prices of food. In some countries like China for example laws prohibit the use of food based crops such as corn for energie production. In the case of corn based ethanol production the cost only for the feedstock itself is over 60% of the whole preparation costs which significantly effects the entire economy of the energy productions process.
The microalgaes however have a huge biotechnological potential and their production is notably cheaper then the traditionaly grown food crops growing expenses. They play a significant role as feedstocks in todays industrial production in such fields as comestible production, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and biotechnology especially in biofule production. In the field of economy the major aspects here are also the technological designs
and the construction. For the future industrial production the closed type systems seem to have more advantages compared to the open, pond-type systems. For high value material production the more innovative and more easily developed closed photobioreactors are the profitable regardless the vast techological designs used in the construction. 

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Effect of Selenium Supplementation on in vitro Radish and Green Pepper Seedlings Germination
Published December 6, 2005
149-155

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals, microorganisms and some other eukaryotes. It has become increasingly evident that Se plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of lung, colorectal and prostate cancer in humans. Although there is evidence that selenium is needed for the growth of algae, the question of essentiali...ty of Se in vascular plants is unresolved. Therefore Raphanus sativus (Se accumulator) and Capsicum annuum (non Se accumulator) were treated with 0-200 mg/l natrium-selenate. The results showed that lower (2 mg/l) concentration natrium-selenate increased the fitomass and total antioxodant capacity in seedlings.

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