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  • Study regarding the influence of the nPK fertilizers use in long term trial on heavy metals concentration in wheat grains
    107-109
    Views:
    107

    The paper presents research results obtained in stationary experiments, carried out at Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, regarding the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, on Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni concentration on wheat grains.

    The minimum concentration of cadmium in wheat grains was recorded in the case of the unfertilized plot N0P0K0, 0.12 mg kg-1, and maximum value 0.22 mg kg-1, was registered at the fertilized plot with N160P80K120, relative difference relative to control was 84.2%.

    Lead concentration had the lowest value in the unfertilized plot, the value (0.4 mg kg-1) being under the maximum allowed (1.0 mg kg-1). In case of the fertilized plot with N160P80K120, the lead concentration had the highest value, 0.47 mg kg-1, but even in this case it was located beneath the maximum limit allowed.

    In all four systems of fertilization, copper has not exceeded the maximum allowed limit (5 mg kg-1), the values have been comprised between 1.68 mg kg-1 at the unfertilized plot and 2.81 mg kg-1 at the fertilized plot with N160P80K120. In other plots of fertilization copper had concentrations of 1.97 mg kg-1, at the fertilized plot with N80P40K40, and 2.78 at the fertilized plot with N80P80K80.

    The lowest concentration of zinc, 26.47 mg kg-1, has been registered in the control N0P0K0. In the other fertilization plots studied, the zinc concentrations had the following values: 27.66 mg kg-1 (N80P40K40), (N80P80K80) 29.87 mg kg-1 and 33.62 mg kg-1 (N160P80K120).

    Nickel has registered the lowest value in the unfertilized plot, 3.47 mg kg-1. The fertilized plot with N160P80K120 had the highest value 4.94 mg kg-1, with 42.39% higher compared to the control N0P0K0.

  • Research of different adjuvants and yeast dosages in honey fermentation process
    5-7
    Views:
    136

    In order to ferment honey it is necessary to add in the fermentation environment some substances with the role of adjuvants, to improve the honey must composition and to help the fermentation process. There were tested 2 different combination of adjuvants which were analyzed in the fermentation process. Also the physical and chemical properties of the final products were analyzed. After establishing the most suitable mix of adjuvants it was necessary to test the right dosage of the yeast used to metabolized sugars: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to obtain appropriate organoleptic properties.

  • Storage of wheat at high moisture
    111-114
    Views:
    74

    Deterioration rates were determined for 15-19% moisture content wheat (Dropia cultivar) stored at constant temperatures.
    Deterioration rates were determined by measuring germination capacity of the grain and respiration rates of grain. Safe storage
    time was defined as the time for germination to decrease to 90%. Safe storage times of 19% m.c. wheat stored at constant
    temperatures ranged from 2.5 d at 30 and 35°C to 37 d at 10°C. Deterioration rates of 19% m.c. wheat stored with a step decrease
    in storage temperatures (35-25, 30-20, 25-20, and 20-15°C) were determined and safe storage times were satisfactorily predicted.
    Safe storage times of 17% m.c. wheat were 5, 7, and 15 d at 35, 30, and 25°C, respectively. Respiration rates and germination
    percentages of 15 and 16% m.c. wheat stored at 25°C remained constant for 70 d. The respiration rates of 17-19% m.c. wheat at
    25°C increased while the germination percentages decreased with storage time. Germination dropped from 98 to 92-89% when the
    dry matter losses were about 0.05% and visible mould occurred when the dry matter losses were about 0.1% in 17-19% m.c.
    wheat.

  • Effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the quality frozen dough bread made from diferent wheat flour
    115-120
    Views:
    67

    A laboratory scale no-time frozen dough procedure that approximates Romanian commercial practice has been
    developed and used to study the effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the bread quality of a straight
    grade wheat flour during prolonged storage (2 days to 26 weeks). All treatments (baking absorption level, mixing
    energy input, mixer type, fermentation and intermediate proof times, removal of oxidant and/or dough
    strengthening conditioners and partial freeze-thaw cycles) had significant effects (P<0.05) upon bread quality (loaf
    volume and/or bread score). In general, these effects were more pronounced with extended frozen storage time.
    High baking absorption, undermixing, bulk fermentation (> 1 h) and removal of oxidant and/or surfactants had
    the most dramatic effects. Addition of a very strong flour at 30% to strengthen the wheat flour had no significant
    effect (P>0.05) upon bread quality under optimum conditions.