Vol 2, No 1 (2019)

Published August 26, 2019



Investigation on the Immunological Effects of Regular Physical Activity

Introduction: Effects of physical activity on immune functions may largely depend on the type of activity, its intensity and duration. However, little information is available regarding the immunological effects of sporting activities in older ages.

The aim of our study was to examine the changes in a wide spectrum of lymp...hocyte subtypes after a period of regular workout among healthy women of different ages.

Methods: In our study, we enrolled 16 elderly women (between ages of 60-75 years) formerly not engaged in regular physical activity, who took part in lightweight conditioning gymnastic exercise program. Eight young athletes and 26 young adults with sedentary lifestyle served as controls. The percentages of peripheral NK, NKT cells, T and B lymphocyte subtypes were determined by flow cytometry based on the staining of extracellular markers and intracellular cytokines.

Results: Lymphocyte subgroups did not differ between the groups of young athletes and young adults with sedentary lifestyle. However, in elderly women, levels of NKT cells were lower, while ratios of T helper / T cytotoxic cells were higher compared to younger individuals. At the end of exercise program, in elderly women, percentages of naive B cells decreased, while levels of switched-memory B cells increased. Furthermore, proportions of Th2 cells increased, while levels of immunosuppressive CD4+CD127-CD25bright Treg cells decreased as the result of regular exercise.

Conclusion: Differences observed after lightweight exercise programs reflect a presumably enhanced immunoreactivity and increased ability for immune responses in older ages.

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The Effect of Proprioceptive Training on Core Muscles Strength and Single Leg Balancing Ability in Youth Soccer Players


Core stability and the ability to balance have both a critical role in today’s modern soccer. Majority of injuries originated from the weakness and inefficient strength of core musculature and the kinetic chain. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of a three month proprioceptive training programm...e on core stability and the ability to balance. We hypothesized that both of the skills might improve by the end of the 12-week exercise program. We set up a group involving 15 players, who regularly participated in a weekly 40 minutes special proprioceptive training routine. The control group hasn’t attended any additional strengthening workout session. The youngsters executed a fitball balancing task, in a seated position, and the so-called Stork-test.  Before the 3-month exercise program, we implemented a pre-, at the end of the program a post-test. According to our results, we may conclude that we had measured a significant difference only in the Fitball-test when players executed the single leg balancing test (Stork-test), we haven’t observed any significant difference.

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Examining the Knowledge of Future Sport Professionals in Connection with Water Rescue and Life-saving


Water drowning is a problem affecting the total population of the Earth. Drowning is a leading cause of death (one of every three deaths). On the planet, a man, a woman or a child drops into the water every two minutes. Every year, 4 million people worldwide are in danger of drowning, either in fresh...water lakes or in the sea. Almost 10% of them do not survive the dive, so they die as a result of suffocation. More than half of those drowned in water are children or juveniles. Sports professionals, especially PE teachers, have a prominent role in preventing water accidents, so it is essential to be aware of life-saving and water-saving. The question arises as to what kind of knowledge these experts have on the subject and how they could stand up if it were wrong. The purpose of our research is to reveal the knowledge gaps and fears of students that prevent them from starting a rescue process. In our survey, we chose the questionnaire method, 147 students with PE or sports major participated. The results showed that a significant proportion, 64% of the students did not even see the resuscitation process. Most of them, 90%, did not resume the resuscitation experiment, 88% of them had not yet helped resuscitation. Most of them have no rescue practice, and their knowledge is incomplete for rescue and first aid.

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Quality of Wellness Services in the North Great Plain Region

Wellness is the philosophy of life in everyday life. In a holistic sense, it is also used as a harmony of physical, mental, and spiritual abilities, basically means prevention, regeneration, relaxation, and fitness. The investigation took place between September and December 2018. Of the 166 participants, 94 were women, and 72 were men. As ...a result of the research, we can state that respondents are looking for relaxation and relaxation in wellness hotels. Their expectations are related to their age, place of residence, and family status.

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