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  • Global tendencies in turkey meat production, trade and consumption
    83-89
    Views:
    105

    Global meat production totaled 357 million metric tons in 2021. Poultry accounted for nearly 40 percent of total meat production, including 4.2 percent of turkey meat (5.8 million tons). Global turkey meat production has stagnated between 5.5 and 6.0 million tons since 2008, in contrast to the monotonous upward trend in poultry meat production. Turkey meat production generally occurs under well-integrated conditions, with some large multinational companies and smaller, regional players. The industry is exposed to a number of factors that affect supply and demand, including disease outbreaks, government regulations, consumer preferences, and economic conditions. Key factors driving market growth include population growth, urbanisation, and increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits of turkey meat over other meats. In addition, advances in processing, packaging, and distribution technology have improved turkey meat's shelf life and availability, further fueling growth. Turkey farming and production are mainly concentrated in certain regions such as North America and Europe, where industrialisation has a long history and infrastructure is well developed. Turkey meat production in these areas is sufficient to meet local demand and is often exported to other regions. However, in other regions where turkey farming is less developed, such as parts of Asia and Africa, turkey meat production is insufficient to meet local demand. This type of meat must be imported from other regions. The degree of self-sufficiency in turkey meat depends on the level of development of the sector in each region. This study investigates the factors affecting global and regional markets for turkey meat and systematised the development of global consumption, production, and trade of turkey meat.

  • Heat treated feeds in turkey feeding
    19-22
    Views:
    113

    The main aim of our study was to determine the effect of expanded and pelleted feeds, as well as the only pelleted feed based on wheat and corn, on the production of turkeys. In May 2006,, a fattening experiment on turkeys was started on the starter farm of Habar Ltd in Szarvas, owned by the Gallicoop Corporation. 17 day old male turkeys were involved in the fattening experiment. The experiment lasted 117 days. At that time, theanimals were 134 days old. After the experiment was completed, they were slaughtered. The following parameters were examined: growth, feed conversion ratio, carcass traits. Turkey feed were produced separately at different times. Similarly to the standard method of turkey fattening, 8 phases feeding was carried out. The fattening experiment was adjusted on male turkeys in 4×12×6 grouping (4 treatments: expanded and pelleted, and only pelleted corn and wheat feed; 12 repeats: number of pens/treatments; 6 birds/pen) 6-6 turkeys from 12 pens per each treatments were measured individually from the 17th day (starter) and at the time of each following feeding changes and mortality. The average of the group was calculated. The average daily weight gain, proportion of the given feed per pen, feeding changes and mortality were determined. The average daily feed intake and the feed conversion ratio were calculated.

  • Study of a Turkey Population for Gene Preservation
    48-52
    Views:
    123

    Genetic variability is very important in small populations. We examined an indigenous bronze turkey population which is bred for gene conservation in order to see if the current mating system maintains genetic variability. The present generation was surveyed using microsatellite markers and a computer model was used to simulate changes in the population over 100 generations.
    The data was analysed using the concept of entrophy from information theory instead of genetic variance so that we could more accurately measure genetic variability.
    The results indicate that the breeding method currently in use, rotational line mating, is acceptable with respect to preserving genetic variability, but new selection methods may provide additional protection against the loss of alleles.

  • Market competition and concentration in the world market of concentrated apple juice
    129-135
    Views:
    153

    In the study, I examined the market competition and concentration in the word market of concentrated apple juice. I used RCA index to determine comparative advantages In the world China possesses the strongest comparative advantages. Besides China, Poland, Hungary, Chile, Ukraine, Turkey and Moldova possess strong comparative advantages too. I used Herfindahl-Hirschman-index to determine the market concentration. Based on it – excluding the high Chinese market share between 2006 and 2010 – the world market of concentrated apple juice can be considered as a market with a moderate concentration. Based on the secondary research the study has a detailed examination of cause and effect relationships behind the RCA and HHI index results

  • Preservation of Biological Diversity of Domestic Animals in Hungary
    18-29
    Views:
    107

    Since the 1992 Rio de Janeiro UNO Congress domestic animals belong also officially to the genetic diversity of the world. Non commercial domestic animal breeds should be maintained for many cultural and technical reasons. Conservation and preservation of living beings is nowadays in the programme of many regional, national and international organizations.
    The preservation of domestic animals is possible in situ (at the original place and conditions) and ex situ (by cryogenic methods).
    There are three era in the history of preservation of domestic animals: the epoch of spontaneous maintenance, the period of sporadic national activities and the era of international programme.
    Some of the questions to be solved by scientific research: the principles of selection of the candidate populations for maintenance, the different degrees of endangeredness, the necessary population size to be subsidized, the problem of inbreeding, the best mating systems etc.
    In Hungary the maintenance of endangered domestic animal breeds is based upon the low.
    The following breeds are on the list of protected breeds:
    − the Hungarian Grey cattle,
    − the Lipizzan, Shagya, Nonius, Gidran, Furioso,Kisbér Halfbred, Murinsulaner and Hucul horses,
    − the Racka, Tsigai and Cikta sheep,
    − the Mangalitsa pig,
    − the Hungarian yellow, white, speckled and the Transsylvanian naked necked hen,
    − the Bronze Turkey,
    − the Frizzle Feathered goose.
    Hopefully in the near future the breeders of traditional domestic animal breeds will find the possible niches for their special products.

  • An Analysis of Rotational Line Mating Using Computer Simulation
    35-39
    Views:
    123

    In a simulation examination, we analyzed the effect of the family size and the rate of pairing on the survival of rare genes, to keep the level of variation of the genepool and to avoid the loss of alleles.
    The population size was 360 animals. In the simulation, we calculated on the basis of a discrete population. We placed the 360 animals into different clusters, with 3 types of frequencies of alleles and 3 types of groups. We assumed 2, 3 or 4 alleles in 8 loci. We generated 15 generations using the same mating and selection system used in practise. The simulation was written with Scilab 2.7.2 software, and evaluated with SPSS software.
    There were significant changes in the effect of family size on the genetic variation in the following cases: when the base population had the same gene frequencies in all loci, and when the gene frequencies were between 0.125-0.75. In these cases, we found that the smaller families (10 animals/cluster) were better than the larger families (30 or 90 animals/cluster). The first generation where there accured a loss of alleles was averagely earliest in larger families (90 animal/cluster). This average was 3.37 generations. When we are searched the effects of the different rates of pairing we found those cases most favourable when the ratio of males and females was 1:2 or 1:4 as compared to 1:9. The first generation where there was a loss of alleles was averagely earliest at the ratio of pairing male and females of 1:9 (the mean was 3.05 generations) when the frequency of the rarest allele was 0.0069.
    The recently introduced rotating-random mating system is an eligible method for small populations for the preservation of genes.