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Long term researches regarding the irrigation influence on sugarbeet crop inthe Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013
11-15

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain in during 1976–2012.

The soil water reserve in 0–75 cm depth decreased bellow easily available water content every year and in 32% of years the soil water reserve decreased bellow wilting point. For optimum water supply an irrigation rate of 2665 m3 ha-1 (variation interval 500–5090 m3 ha-1) was needed.

The irrigation determined improving of water/temperature + light report (Domuta climate index) with 47.4% in average in the period May–September. A statistically very significant connection was quantified between this indicator and the yield.

Daily water consumption increased in the irrigated variant, the biggest difference in comparison with unirrigated variant was registered in August, 86% in comparison with unirrigated variant. As consequence, the value of the total water consumption increased with 50%, variation interval was 11–154%. The irrigation covered 37.8% of total water consumption, the variation interval was 8.3%–67.9%.

The yield level of the sugarbeet increased in average with 61%, the variation interval was 9–227%. Standard deviation was lower in the irrigated variant and this emphasizes an improve of the yield stability with 25.1%. The sugar content of the sugarbeet roots from irrigated variant increased statistically very significantly in the droughty years and differs significantly in the rainy years.

Water use efficiency increased in the irrigated variant with 7% and irrigation water use efficiency was between 7.9 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water and 17.4 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water.

The positive influence of the irrigation on microclimate, water consumption, yield level, stability and quality and on water use efficiency sustain the need of the irrigation in sugarbeet from Crisurilor Plain.

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Effect of Water and Nutrient Supply on the Allelopathy of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. and Xanthium italicum Mor
Published May 11, 2003
102-105

Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) and Cocklebur species (Xanthium spp.) are more and more dangerous and „difficult to control” weeds in several cultivated plants. The ground cover of these species have became larger in Hungary like other warm-philous species. There are several causes of danger of them, for example: large capability f...or competition, allelopathic effect, keeping on of emergence.
The allelopathic effect of these weeds were examined on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Extracts of plants grown under different conditions have several effect on this species.
Abutilon theophrasti plants were grown in perlite to examine the effect of supplying with nutritive materials on production of inhibitors. The water soluble exudates of the shoots grown with no artificial fertilisers inhibit stronger than grown with them. Acid soluble exudates have contrary effect. The exudates made of roots inhibited the sugarbeet less than shoots.
Effect of drought stress on production of inhibitors was examined on Abutilon theophrasti and on Xanthium italicum. The species responded to missing of water different, and the water, acid and basic soluble exudates had different effect, as well.

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The irrigation influence under the soil, microclimate and plants in maize from Crişurilor Plain
Published October 5, 2010
180-186

The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Oradea in 1976, for establishing
the soil water balance. In the irrigated variant the soil moisture was determined 10 to 10 days for maintaining the soil water reserve on
irrigation depth (0 – 50 cm for wheat and bean, 0 – 75cm for m...aize, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potato and alfalfa 1st year and 0 – 100
cm for alfalfa 2nd year) between easily available water content and field capacity. Thus, an average irrigation rate of 2560 m³/ha was used
in the 9 experimental crops. The average of the annual rainfall for the 1976 – 2008 period was of 625.0 mm. The technologies used were
correlated with the needes of the crops, such as melioration crop rotation, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the chemical export on the
yield, manure (40 t/ha) was used in potato and sugarbeet. After 33 years of the irrigation use the soil structure degree (38.62%) did not
decrease when compared to the unirrigated maize – wheat crop rotation (37.01%). Bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance and
hydraulic conductivity have worse values than the ones in the unirrigated variant. The humus content is very close to the humus content
determined in 1976, the phosphorus and the potassium content increased very much in comparison with the initial content (117 ppm vs 22.0
ppm); (180.0 ppm vs 102 ppm). The use of the adequate fertilization system and of the irrigation water with a good qaulity did not determine
a decrease of the pH value of the soil. The irrigation determined the improve of the microclimate conditions, the increase of the plant water
consumption, yield gains very significant statistically and higher protein content of the maize grains.

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Allelopathic Effect of Italian Cocklebur on Sugar Beet
Published December 6, 2005
74-77

Cockleburs are noxious weeds in Hungary, where they are widespread in row crops, especially in maize, sunflower and sugarbeet. A low density population of these weeds may be harmful because of their large competitive ability, fast growth in early phenological stages, allelopathy, and persistant sprouting.
Allelopathy of Xanthium italicum Mor.... was examined during the growing season in 2004. Root and shoot samples were collected at 4 or 5 leaves stage (in the end of May and in the beginning of June) and before flowering (in the beginning of July) before and after rain. Extracts were made in tap water. The test plant was Beta vulgaris L.; its germination, root and shoot growth were evaluated at the 6th and 10th days after treatment.
Most of extracts inhibited the germination of sugar beet. In these experiments the phenological stage of the donor plant determined slightly the effectiveness of the extracts on sugar beet. Generally, significant differences existed between treatments only in cases of concentrated extracts.
Rainfall can modify the inhibitory effect of extracts (especially shoot extracts). Shoot extracts of young plants inhibited stronger germination and growth after rain than before rain. Density of cockleburs influenced the effect of extracts, as well. Generally, differences between the efficacy of extracts was larger after rain.
The results supported the hypothesis that the phenological stage and some environmental factors can modify allelopathy of cockleburs.

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Research on seeding agents to effect the sugar crystallization
Published October 5, 2010
30-33

The quality of sugar is the decisive factor in ensuring the sugar commercializing through the conservation of old markets and
expansion towards new markets. The sugar quality is also the key element which determines the price maintenance in according with the
expenditures performed or even the diminution of the price as a consequence of t...he quality lessening.

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