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  • Risk and Risk Management in the Hungarian Sheep Sector
    25-29
    Views:
    65

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the risk attitudes of Hungarian sheep producers regarding the changes they have had to go through since the political changes of 1989-1990. Moreover, the objective of this study is to strengthen the empirical basis for risk analysis by identifying the importance of farmers’ risk attitudes. The results of a nationwide survey of over 500 sheep farmers presented a framework of risk attitudes, risk sources and applied risk management techniques of livestock producers.

  • Role of living bacteria and other amendment in early development of maize
    53-56
    Views:
    113

    Different bacteria and wood ash, as a possible micro-nutrient, and liming material, was examined in our experiment on the early growth of corn seedlings.

    The development of renewing energy resources includes the use of energy grasses and energy forests. The intensive land use in forestry and in agriculture may cause the acidification of soils due to the harvest, or leaching of cations. To maintain the sustainability of soils necessary to maintain it’s the buffer capacity, and pH. Beside the lime the wood ash can is one of the most effective sources to provide the sustainability of intensive land use. The soil born micro organisms play a significant role in the maintenance of soil quality. The bio fertilizer, that contains soil originated bacteria (Azotobacter, and Bacillus sp.), was used in the experiments. The plants release several organic acids by their roots lowering the soil pH, and make more available the sparingly soluble minerals. The amounts of released organic matter depend on stress intensity, as the high pH is. The soil life has a significant role to keep the soil conditions on sustainable level, since there are several similarities in nutrient uptake mechanism between the bacteria and higher plants. Advantageous effects of bio-fertilizer were observed in our experiments.

    We came to the conclusion that the use of wood ash is recommended instead of lime for the improvement of acidic soils, on the evidence of its pH increasing effect. The wood ash contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants. The solubility of heavy metals is very low; therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture by our experiments. The retardation of growth at higher ash doses can be explained by the modification effect to the soil pH, as far as the original soil pH was pH 6.8, and when ash was given to the soil, the pH increases to 7.8 pH, that is unfavourable for the uptake of most nutrients.

  • Hungary’s correspondence with the EU regulations regarding liquid bio fuels
    119-128
    Views:
    71

    During the recent years researchers from different countries have found that our environment is at risk. It has been recognised by the leaders of the member countries and they have made decisions together concerning environmental protection in several agreements, contracts. Unfortunately, these decisions have been weakened and adumbrated on numerous occasions by certain interests.
    However, the energetic exploitation of the biomass has been supported by the economic and social changes of the previous years, more specifically, that of the bio fuels. The significant increase in the price of the traditional energy sources, the import dependency of the countries, the foreseeable exhaustion of the resources, the changes occurred due to joining the EU are all such problems that facilitates the application of bio fuels, as a good solution.
    Our country decided to modify the then existed bio fuel component rate of 2% to 5.75% which has to be achieved by 2010. Since then, in March 2007 it has been expanded to 10% until 2020 (concerning energy content). This decision was taken knowing that this year (2006) the bio fuel rate has been 0.5%. However, the rate of 2% has not been achieved even in the EU. One can understand that the implementation cannot be fulfilled without significant political decisions and support. The main reason for this is that the price of bio fuels is not competitive with the present fossil-origin energy prices in Hungary. So in 2007 several regulations were modified. The most important one is perhaps the regulation of the revenue tax, which caused the successful tax-differentiation concerning bio fuels in more member states between 2007 and 2008. Its essence is that the revenue tax is not decreased, but if the fuel does not contain a bio fuel component of 4.4 bulking percentage per litre, „punishment” tax has to be paid. Moreover, on behalf of the implementation, regulations concerning bio fuels and bio fuel components are improving
    At present the production and the application of bio fuels without any support are not economical yet. That is why it is important to emphasize the support policy of our country. After joining the Union, the new members can receive some shares from the direct disbursements, but only a tan increasing rate, we can achieve the 100% in 2013, though there is an opportunity for national contribution. Energy plants produced in agriculture receive separate supplementary support which is an advantageous opportunity for the farmers of the sector. Bio fuels cannot only be supported through agriculture, of course, but by research development, investment etc.
    All in all, it can be concluded that Hungary seeks to fulfil the EU responsibilities taken and by this, to contribute to the maintenance of the sustainable progress, decrease of environmental pollution and the import dependency of energy sources.

  • The role of mediation resources in the operation and development of knowledgeintensive small and medium enterprises
    109-113
    Views:
    119

    Address social and economic processes of social capital system between universities and the business sector – because of their special and similar characteristics – major emphasis will be displayed. Knowledge-intensive companies would be hard to imagine functioning without established links with tertiary education institutions and universities can now functions would be unthinkable without displaying the corporate sector sectoral specificities of knowledge and strategies of the university.

    Because of the development of knowledge-intensive business activities based on innovation-oriented economic development which are specific to innovative SMEs, funding sources and opportunities. In a typical operating environment of innovation, with sectoral, spatial and temporal factors are constantly changing. These factors are decisive elements in the innovation opportunities, and through this indirectly the success of these enterprises. The resources involved in mediating the markets perceive a high risk to price this innovation activities and their funding. Under the study to try to answer that by optimizing the functions of universities, how and in what form they may have a role in mitigating financial risks.