Nowadays in Hungary nearly 5 million hectares of agricultural area was infected with ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). According to the public opinion the ragweed is a weed. From agricultural and public health point of view it is exceptionally dangerous plant. As it contains a number of useful active ingredients, based on this the ragweed is consider a medicinal plant. Our goal was to present that the ragweed contains antifungal active substances as well. In the experiments we used the pre-flowering plants with roots and we extracted the biological active components of dried plant. We tested the biological activity of the extracts against Monilinia laxa in vitro. We related based on our examination that ragweed contains biologically active agents, by which it is hampered the reproduction of the Monilinia laxa.
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is one of the most important, allergenic weed species in Hungary. A. artemisiifolia invades both a broad range of often disturbed areas (brownfields) and either undisturbed ones like waste lands, roadsides, riverbanks and railway tracks. In field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mainly in sunflower, maize, cereals and soybean. In Hungary many inhabitants suffer from allergy caused by Ambrosia pollen which results a serious human-health risk. The aim of the control is to prevent flowering and seed propagation of A. artemisiifolia. Until now the occurrence of numerous pathogenic fungi which attack common ragweed plants have been identified in Hungary, however there is not yet available biological weed control program because of shortage in acceptable effectiveness, and endangering cultural plant species. During our weed surveys in the region of Hajdúság (East-Hungary) we found numerous common ragweed plants showing heavy necrotic lesions on leaves and stems. The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from diseased tissues of common ragweed (A. artemisiifolia). The identification of fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and features of conidia and chlamydospores developed on malt extract agar (MEA) plates. After examination of axenic cultures we revealed that the fungus isolated from the leaves ands stems of common ragweed was a Phoma-like species.
In Hungary 6.2 billion hectares are used for agricultural and from this area 5.0 billion are polluted by ragweed. In addition, the export of agricultural products will be threatened because of their pollution. Ragweed results also problems in human medicine because of its pollen allergy. More than 30% of the habitants are affected directly or indirect by allergyc diseases. On an annual basis nearly 60 billion HUF is spent on defense against ragweed. From this budget 30 billion HUF comes from the damage of the agriculture and other 30 billion for the cost of the therapy and health insurance. To solve the problems caused by ragweed needs new ideas. The proposals are the gathering and comprehensive utilization. A leap forward, from the ragweed new, market–orientated product should be developed.
In our country, wormwood ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) may cause serious problems. Nearly 5 million hectares of agricultural area was infected with ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), which is believed useless weed. Allergological point of view, most problematic weeds adventive. However, many physiologically very beneficial compound also included, those with the effects have been known also by the Indians. On this basis, herbs can be thought of as ragweed. Our goal was to present that the ragweed contains antifungal active substances as well. In this paper we tested the biological activity of the extracts against Alternaria alternata F.00750 in vitro. We related based on our examination that ragweed contains biologically active agents, by which it is hampered the reproduction of the Alternaria alternata. The minimum effective concentration was 300 mg extract in a Petri dish, which was three days inhibited the growth of fungus. Full fungicidal effect was observed over dose 525 mg.
In Hungary today is about 5 million hectares of agricultural land contaminated with ragweed. The ragweed problem a year is about 60 billion HUF to be paid, of which 30 billion are used to reduce the agricultural damage. Experiments with ragweed pollen has mainly been carried out in connection with terms of allergy. The other biochemical experiments and studies with this plant, have so far been the scientific horizons of public life, boosted the edge. We wanted to demonstrate that the ragweed, which is a weed, containsbiological active (for example: antifungal) compounds. For our experiments in the previous cycle of flowering, plants were collected manually, with its roots and with each plant part. The extraction of the substance from dry plant – meal was carried out using appropriate solvents. The biological activity of ragweed-extracts were tested against fungi isolated from soils and meadow with different mode of cultivation. Our results suggest that ragweed contains biologically active substances, which inhibit the growth of fungi, depending on the concentration of active ingredients of the plant.
The aim of this research was to prove that the syrup containing ragweed used for feeding the bees was transferred to the honey. To reach this goal we developed a method to analyse the volatile components of the samples. We applied two sample preparation methods. The first one was SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) preparation from the headspace of all of the samples. In the second case only the raw leaves of the ragweed were extracted with n-hexane and dichloromethane to complete the SPME results. The measurements were performed on GC-MS equipment. Chromatograms and data evolution showed that the components of the ragweed were also present in honey so they were transferred by bees.
Our experiments have repeatedly shown that the extract of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an antifungal and antibacterial component.
In our paper we tested of the biological activity of the herbal substance against opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria strains (Staphylococcus
aureus 110003 and 25923; Staphylococcus saprophyticus 110008). Our laboratory tests show that the extract is bacteriostatic and in several cases bactericid. We can assume that from the the agricultural and public health aspects can be extremely dangerous weed, contains biologically active components and it may be suitable for the prepare of antibacterial agents.
The author refers about the nowadays applied practical plant protection activities against pests occuring on trees, shrubs and turfs of public domains. It is overviewed those insects, diseases and weeds which cause damages and touched also upon disturbing the local residents only and tasks to the plant protection engineer expert to manage them. Among the special features of public domains should be mentioned that the rules are difficult to harmonize according to the legal, public health, and horticulture requirements at the same time. The anti-pesticide attitude of EU and the modest range of pesticides which are applicable on public domains make difficulties in optimal management work. The author draws up proposals how to manage the complex plant protection on public domains.
During the last decade certificate registration of 13 active ingedients were removed by European Union from sunflower herbicide market, including the basis for the incorporating technology, the trifluralin active ingredient as well. Its relative, the benfluralin active ingredient, which include the Balan 600 WDG herbicide product in sunflower, will be sold again from 2015 spring in Hungarian pesticide market. It has a broad-spectrum and lond residue besides it has very high level selectivity on sunflower. It has very good effect against annual monocotweeds such as common barnyadgrass, foxtail species, large crabgrass and wild proso millet, dicotyledonous weeds such as common lambsquarters,and redroot pigweed. It has significant side-effect against common ragweed, black nightshade, wild buckweed and prostrate knotweed. The long effect residue provide the weed-free til harvest. Benfluralin is totally selective on sunflower, as no colouring, any deformation or growth inhibition was not observed during the entire growing season. It should be sprayed 3-4 days before sowing within 1 hour and to be incorporated into the soil in 4-6 cm depth with tillage equipment. It can be used in tank mix with fluorochloridon in incorporated technology against annual dicotyledonous weeds. After the Balan incorporation can be used postemergence timing imazamox and tribenuron-metil active substances against hard kill and deeply germinating weeds. The products can not be used in tank mix with bacterial products.