There is a mutual dependence between nature conservation activity and agriculture in Hungary, as the management of the protected areas cannot be achieved without ecological farming methods. Moreover, viable economic activity can be only imagined through the harmonization of agricultural and nature conservation interests. From a nature conservat...ion point of view, grass management systems play the greatest role in domestic agricultural systems. Yet, due to the prohibition of certain management methods and the spatial and temporal restraints on grazing, nature conservation activities have priority on protected grasslands. While nature conservation activity is still of prominent importance, it is not equally suitable for the economical management of protected grasslands per se. With our examinations, we would like to emphasize the common interests of these mutually dependent activities and to promote bilateral cooperation. Our aim is to model the production of grass on the great pastureland of Hajdúbagos. Potential grass production levels are easily calculable with a computer model based on data collected through a series of test harvests, as well as by factoring in changing climatic factors and by simulating the effects of grazing animal species and stocks. This model is not only useful for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and grazing method, and therefore the most suitable management strategy, but it also supports local farmers to be able to plan their activities. In this way, both nature conservation and economic aims can be easily harmonized, which would be an important factor for the sustainable development of rural areas.
Between 2002 and 2006 we made the coenological survey of five disturbed habitats marked as grasslands. With our coenological examinations and the statistical analyses we wanted to make the detailed botanical survey of the given five habitats in order to verify that the maintenance of habitats amongst agricultural lands – and considered as les...s valuable – is of high importance and necessary from an environmental point of view, since these habitats are often living and feeding areas of many rare and/or protected plant- and animal species.
As a result of the statistical analyses we have pointed out that number of species in case of all the five habitats extreme fluctuation characterizes the statistical universe. As regards the
average of the coverage it is the highest in case of the third habitat (degraded Puccinellia grassland), and the coefficient of variation shows homogenity as well. In examining the Shannon-value the average is the highest in case of the second habitat (Alopecurus meadow), and the statistical dispersion is the smallest. The coefficient of variation shows medium variability. The median of evenness is the lower in case of the third habitat (degraded
Puccinellia meadow) and the statistical is the highest here as well.
We have done the Hierarchical and the K-Means Cluster Analyses for the 21 plant associations of the five habitats. Both cluster analyses put the same associations into the same cluster, so
one can state that the associations in each cluster are different from the associations of the other ones according to the coverage data of the plant families.
The National Agricultural Environmental Management Project’s (NAEMP) extensive grassland farming project is aimed at extensive cultivation on of nearly 1.1 million hectares of grassland, and at improving the state of grasslands with nature- and environment protecting methods. By using the 2002 data (the NAEMP’s first year’s data), I came...to the following conclusions: Within the Extensive grassland farming project, a state subsidy was applied for on 8.94% of Hungary’s total grasslands. In Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg and Hajdú-Bihar counties, applied for state subsidies covered 12% of the grassland of the counties.10.45% of the projects arrived from the county of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, and 28.56% from the county of Hajdú-Bihar. In Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, the support was 37.7% of the total subsidy, while in Hajdú-Bihar, it was 37.1%, unlike nationwide, which was 30.1%.The intensity of the applications is respectively 1.7 and 2.5 times more than the National (1.24) value.
In my view, in some fields, which are not between nature protected areas you’d better consider permitting intensive cultivation, simultaneously with grazing, with the observation of nature- and environmental regulations.