Renewable energy applications were examined in animal farms. The investment support system for animal farms – which has renewable elements – has been summarized through analyzing the legislation and future prospects. The most important in this topic is the Animal Farm Modernization Support, which had several application periods during the 2...007–2013 CAP budgets. For analyzing practical application of renewable energies interviews and farm visits have done in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect were examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. The investment supports plays great role in renewable energy projects by lowering the return time; and through additional points in application assessing, which is an incentive for farmers to include renewable energy element in their modernization projects.
The demand for the recognition, identification and introduction of measures aimed at improving organizational culture and the efficiency of management and leadership plays a crucial role in the life of every organization, including the law enforcement bodies as well. The tasks and responsibilities of the Hungarian Police Force have changed cons...iderably both in terms of quantity and quality since Hungary’s accession into the European Union first, and since the country’s joining the Schengen Zone. We are now facing problems formerly unheard of (e. g. the integration of the police force and the border guard, joining the Schengen Zone, the emergence of new forms of crime). As border control within the Union stopped, organized crime has become more powerful. The changes are by no means over: in order to improve the subjective sense of security of the population and to advance organizational efficiency, a number of changes are being implemented at present. For the internal security of the member states of the Union and for the improvement of the efficiency of police work in the member states, the use of consciously coordinated management methods is indispensable. These efforts are the subject of this essay.
A police force is an partially open system, the work of which is influenced by a number of external processes and factors. The organizational culture of a police force is determined by its traditions on the one hand, and by the demands to develop its functions as an authority and a service provider on the other. It is undeniable that any conscious effort in shaping and developing the organizational culture of the police requires special competences and commitment from the leaders of the organization. Furthermore, it is also necessary to modernize the management tasks. It applies to all the levels of leadership, from the head of a patrol to the supreme commander of the police force.
The organizational scheme of the police force is that of a functional, linear system. Such an organization is characterized by a relatively high degree of inflexibility, a slow and cumbersome reaction to external changes. All these may adversely influence organizational efficiency. It therefore appears to be necessary to examine the present structure of police, and survey the possibilities of modernization. Modernization does not necessarily mean a change in the structure; it may be restricted to changes in organizational culture, the creation of an atmosphere favourable for reforms, and the coordination of diversified structures. In this paper I wish to demonstrate some of the possibilities of improving organizational culture and organization development, based upon the findings of a specific survey.
The unbalanced anthropogenic effects for several decades resulted in significant technogen damages in the ecosystem of Ukraine. Excessive land development, including the use of slopes, effected the disintegration of the natural balance of lands – arable-lands, meadows, forests, and watershed areas – producing quite a negative effect on the...landscape’s nature itself. It has to be stressed that according to other indexes, too, agricultural lands show a tendentious deterioration.
Erosion, caused by water and wind, is one of the most influential factors in the degradation of agricultural soils and in the reduction of the productiveness of benefital lands. Nowadays the degree erosion became significant and it directly endangers the existence of the soil which is a principal chain-link of the agricultural cultivation as well as an irreplaceable element of the biosphere.
The social and political changes in Ukraine’s life demand fundamental modernization in the land utilization both in ecological and in economical aspects. However, these aims can be realized only if, during the developments, we base on the up-to-date results of agronomics, and we do further research in the relations of agricultural land use and environmental protection. According to the latest theories, rational and environmental-safe agricultural production relates to the optimum correlation of the natural- and agricultural- ecosystems as well as to the reconstruction of agricultural areas built on the basis of environmental protection.
the target for the European Union to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. In this process, the education and training are of great importance for the member states. The restructuring of higher education, the modernization of the universities cannot be achieved without new financial resources. They s...hould be ensured by increasing contribution of the private sector. However it is not enough to invest sufficient funds in the educational and training system, they must be expended efficiently. The free higher education itself does
not necessarily guarantee the equal access and maximal participation. The quality of higher education and equal opportunity can be improved, if the rising funds are expended on infrastructure development and creating an efficiently working student support system.
Quality, equal opportunity, efficiency – they are the most important views for the decision-makers in the higher education reform. In my paper, I would like to interpret definitions relating to higher education and in this way I attempt to evaluate the financing systems of the Hungarian higher education formed since the change of the regime, with special regards to the normative financial system combined with the payment of tuition fees. For classification, it is necessary to present the different basic financial models. Furthermore, on the basis of the above criteria, I try to make recommendations on how to improve the present financial model in order to achieve the Lisbon objectives.
The topic is important in our days, because tuition fees will be introduced in Hungary from 2008. The problem is very complex, although the analysts in most cases tend to approach the topic with prejudice, depending on their financial and political interests. My analysis may contribute to discernment in the tangle of the pros and cons.
Mycologists have recorded a few hundred thousand Latin names for fungi and these are thought to refer to 70 000 or so separate species. The use of molecular techniques in fungal taxonomy and systematics in the last 25 years has provided massive amounts of information to clarify phylogenetic relationships, encouraged grant support, and complicat...ed the jobs of classically-trained mycologists. Taxonomists have a reputation for being traditionalists, but the community has recently embraced the modernization of the nomenclatural rules by discarding the requirement for Latin descriptions, endorsing electronic publication, and ending the dual system of nomenclature, viz. teleomorph and anamorph names, which used parallel for the sexual and asexual phases of pleomorphic species. A group of taxonomists accepted ’The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature’ and its basic principle the ’One fungus – one name’ has been incorporated in the Code of Nomenclature (’Melbourne Code’) in 2011. The next, and more difficult step will be to develop community standards for sequence-based classification. As the’One fungus – One name’ theory is a brand-new issue for the Hungarian plant doctors and practical specialists, it seems reasonable to review this to promote conversations between generations in Hungarian language.
Today it's an important role of the renewable energy resources, improving energy efficiency, thereby contributing to sustainable, ecofriendly use of local energy resources. Globally intensify the requirements and considerations related to environmental conservation. In this light, the main objective of the Hungarian energy concept is to maintai...n long-term security of supply, the economy and the environment occurring contradictions. So there is a need for systems that, in compliance with EU environmental directives, acceptable cost level will ensure the desired and expected security of supply. In the study, three companies and other technical parameters of these are examined. For each undertaking, different results were observed. For two undertakings, we are talking about realized investments, in one case a prognosis was examined. All three companies contributed to the requirement of renewable energy sources reaching 13% in Hungary by 2020.
The dairy farming sector needs constant modernization of its buildings, machines and technology in order to maintain its competitiveness and productivity. For the greater scale investments, these companies try to apply for state funds in addition to their own financial sources. Therefore, the investment support syst...em plays a great role by improving the competitiveness and modernity of these farms. In the last 10 years, 7 funding programs were available for dairy farms. In this research, 25 dairy farms were interviewed in Hajdú-Bihar County. The examined farms cover more than 50% of the milk production in Hajdú-Bihar County. The survey questions focused on the investment funding program use of farms between 2007 and 2017 and renewable energy investments including all programs. The results show how many tenders were submitted, how many were successfully evaluated and completed. All farms had at least two successfully evaluated projects. A correlation was found between completed projects by farm size and completed projects. The connection of the modernity index of dairy farms and the completed projects was also shown.