Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient needed not only for people, but also crops. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in
Zn, leading to poor crop yields. In fact, one-third (33%) of the world's population is at risk of Zn deficiency in rates, ranging from 4% to
73% depending on the given country. Zn deficiency in agr
The Zn contents of soils in Hungary are medium or rather small. Generally, the rate of Zn deficiency is higher on sand, sandy loam or soil
types of large organic matter contents. High pH and calcium carbonate contents are the main reasons for the low availability of Zn for
plants (Karimian and Moafpouryan, 1999). It has been reported that the high-concentration application of phosphate fertilisers reduces Zn
availability (Khosgoftarmanesh et al., 2006). Areas with Zn deficiency are particularly extensive in Békés, Fejér and Tolna County in
Hungary, yet these areas feature topsoils of high organic matter contents. Usually, Zn is absorbed strongly in the upper part the soil, and it
has been observed that the uptakeable Zn contents of soil are lower than 1.4 mg kg-1.
Maize is one of the most important crops in Hungary, grown in the largest areas, and belongs to the most sensitive cultures to Zn
deficiency. Zn deficiency can causes serious damage in yield (as large as 80 %), especially in case of maize. On the other hand, Zn
deficiency can also cause serious reduction in the yields of dicots. One of the most important vegetables of canning industry is cucumber,
which is grown all over the world.
In this study, the effects of Zn deficiency have investigated on the growth of shoots and roots, relative and absolute chlorophyll contents,
fresh and dry matter accumulation, total root and shoot lengths, the leaf number and leaf area of test plants in laboratory. Experimental
plants used have been maize (Zea mays L. cv. Reseda sc.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Delicatess). A monocot and dicot plant have
chosen a to investigate the effects of Zn deficiency, because they have different nutrient uptake mechanism.
It has been observed that the unfavourable effects of Zn deficiency have caused damage in some physiological parameters, and
significantly reduced the growth, chlorophyll contents of monocots and dicots alike.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The general micronutrient deficiency of the soils influences the quality of food production which causes human health problems in several countries as well. The non optimal Fe-Zn ratio can cause latent zinc deficiency – which the plants response in the function of their sensitivity –what has no visual symptoms or the plant shows deficiency symptoms in case of appropriate zinc supply. This phenomenon can cause significant decrease in the crop yield.
Monoculture caused a gradual decline of soil conditions, while nematodes and salt accumulation stimulated the growers to choose alternative practices, such as soilless cultures, which proved their value in Western Europe. Exact statistics are lacking, but estimates deal with approximately 300-400 hectares of vegetable on rock wool, whereas othe...r substrates of soilless culture may multiply this number. Real perspectives are attributed to the forced production of pepper, tomato and cucumber.
Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production.
In Hungary, the quantity of nutrient elements in drainage water is unknown, et all. Connecting the production results with chemical analysis, we gain more information about it.
You can see a mathematical method for evaluation of nutrient and water conditions in tomato hydroponics production.
Botrytis cinerea has been reported as a species complex containing two cryptic species, groups I (Botrytis pseudocinerea) and II (B. cinerea sensu stricto). In order to compare the pathogenicity of group I and group II of B. cinerea, we have selected 4 strains of group I and 4 strains of group II. The results demonstrated that competitive infec...tion of group II was more on grape, cucumber and paprika leaves, than group I. However the results on bean leaves did not correlate the applied B. cinerea group.