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Economic policy strategy of UNITAB
Published July 28, 2008
83-90

Under the leadership of the International Association of Tobacco Producers – UNITAB – there is a struggle going on for stabilizing the situation of European tobacco growers. UNITAB unites the tobacco associations and tobacco growers of all EU countries.
Tobacco production ensures economic stability for more than 100 thousand small- and m...edium-sized farms in the rural areas of 10 EU countries. In addition, its social importance in the survival of rural communities is emphasized by the 400 thousand direct or related seasonal jobs.
Within the framework of the CAP reform, the European Union is gradually changing the regulations of production. This is based on the decoupling of subsidies, which will be implemented in two phases. Between 2006 and 2009. the decoupling will be 40% and then after 2010, 50% (the other 50% will be used for restructuring within the second pillar). The question is raised, how will the second 50% be restructured to the second pillar. Between regions and how it can be ensured that this support would go to tobacco production.
With its participation in the principles of the European Tobacco Charta, UNITAB targets for production under economically-balanced conditions, the production of products meeting the customer requirements, consideration of the working conditions (especially for seasonal workers) and adherence to the health regulations related to the consumption of the end product already in the production and environmental protection. They aim to ensure the survival of the sector via tobacco growing with sustainable development and high quality. To maintain the continuity, there is a need for the support of regional, national and EU authorities. Future of the sector is dependent upon adaptation of tobacco growers and upon meeting the social expectations.
According to UNITAB, efforts should be made to modify the decisions so that the majority of the funding could be used by the grower. The tobacco industry has been able to effectively fight for its survival.

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Prospects of tobacco sector due to changing of union subsidy system
Published July 28, 2008
45-51

Some 80% of the revenues from tobacco production originate from subsidies, therefore the existence of the tobacco industry basically depends on the system of subsidies. According to the current position, in the transitional period of introduction of the CAP reform (from 2006 to 2009) at least 40% of tobacco premiums shall be decoupled from the ...production, while the tobacco producing member states may decide to continue to pay the remaining 60% (or a less rate, depending on the rate of decoupling) in a coupled form. Tobacco premiums shall be fully decoupled as from the 2010 crop, however farmers will be eligible only for 50% of the subsidies, and the rest 50% shall be used for subsidising rural developments in tobacco producing regions (Radóczné, 2007).
This change affects the section very seriously. In EU-15 member states this system was introduced in 2006, which resulted in giving up tobacco growing by high percentage of the farmers (70-80% reduction of tobacco production in Greece and Belgium, and 45% reduction in Portugal). In Hungary – due to the small scale of the tobacco section – this rate reduction in production would jeopardise the existence of the section, therefore we are interested in maintaining the existing system of coupled subsidies to as a large extent and for as long time as possible.
This study shows the possibility of tobacco sector before and after introducing the changes in the system of subsidies, and formulates the most serious problems and roles of the sector.

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The ain impacts of the Lisbon Strategy on tobacco growing
Published May 23, 2006
80-87

The Lisbon Strategy of the EU promises a more competitive Europe with more and better workplaces, in addition to sustainability.
Tobacco production is one of the most controversial industries of the agricultural sphere in the European Union. This crop is a „leader” of the world’s economic growth, a promoter of globalisation and has bee...n an economic channel between America and Europe for more than 500 years. It is also a motor of technical development, due to its inducing effect on profitability and work efficiency. The tax competition of the states and the increase in consumption have become such a self-inducing system in which the increase of production created an increasing number of jobs, especially in tobacco growing, where the replacement of manual labour was much slower than the increase of the demand for raw material. The fact that smoking is becoming general should be handled as a social demand, though its health risks cannot be denied. However, the extreme objection to smoking cannot be accepted, especially not when it evokes social strains and concludes that people smoke because of tobacco production, al though the real situation is the opposite: People smoke in Europe, so the tobacco should be grown here, as is in our economic interest.
There is a contradiction between the strategic objectives and the roles of the industry which should be ceased urgently. Al thong aim is the creation of jobs, stopping tobacco growing could result in unexpected agro-social disadvantages. Rejection of the industry’s sustainability questions the realization of the keystones of the strategy. Competitiveness, sustainability and social cohesion should be implemented as a unit of the strategy also in tobacco growing.

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The Effect of EU Accession on the Hungarian Tobacco Sector. The Evaluation of the Regulations
Published December 6, 2005
368-377

Tobacco growing can be regarded as a special small sector of Hungarian agriculture. However, studying it from a different point of view, we can see that it is an outstanding sector among others in agriculture. Not only is its budget importance that makes it significant (its total budgetary income is more than 200 billion HUF), and on the other ...hand it also plays an important role in employment and income output.
Nevertheless questions of regulation arise, and especially those of its justification, methods and scope. Moreover, EU accession forces Hungary to redraw its regulatory statutes for legal harmonization. Below is a discussion of the impacts of this process, as well as of the domestic tobacco market itself.

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Investigations of Thrips tabaci and Aeolothrips intermedius population dynamics in tobacco plantations
Published June 30, 2018
121-127

Studies were conducted between 2015 and 2017 with yellow sticky traps in seven tobacco plantations. The purpose was to determine when and in what numbers onion thrips individuals can settle into tobacco plantations. The primary objective of the study was to determine the proper timing of chemical treatments, furthermore, the determination of cr...ucial factors that can influence the population dynamics of Thrips tabaci.

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Adopt the tobacco plastid transformation technics in Hungary
Published December 22, 2010
73-76

Under the GENOMNANOTECH Debrecen Regionális Egyetemi Tudásközpont (GND RET) research program in summer 2007 in UD Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering Faculty of Agricultural Science Institute of Horticulture experiments were launched to transform tobacco plant by plastid transformation technics.
Our aim was to adopt first in ...Hungary the tobacco plastid transformation technics, which were used in Waksman Istitute Rutgers, The state University of New Jersey (USA) leading with Prof Dr. Pál Maliga. Scientists won scholarships learn and use this technics in the University of Debrecen.

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The development of the scientific bases of horticulture and the history of horticultural innovation in the Northern Great Plain region and in Debrecen
Published September 14, 2005
17-20

It can be told about the second half of the XXth century that, apart from preferring the large-scale growing of field plants and the largescale
livestock farming, corresponding to the central political will of the communist era, the significance and innovation output of
horticultural education in Debrecen was rather of follow-up trait, of... secondary importance. The Tobacco Research Institute continued the
research work, and then even this activity was stopped. According to a survey finished in 1997, the mentioned institute had no invention,
granted patent, protection for registered model or any application for patent in progress at the Hungarian Patent Office. Until this time, invention activity at the University of Agricultural Sciences was of medium standard. In the National Patent Office, seven patent applications related to agricultural production and nine patent applications for other fields submitted under the inventors’ names were recorded. In the same period, the Cereal Research Institute (Szeged) led the absolute innovation list of Hungarian agricultural R+D institutions and university education institutes by submitting 164 own patent applications. Both in domestic and international terms, the horticultural innovation conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences, despite the individual research results and achievements deserving recognition, without appropriate background – remained unnoticed. Let us put it this way: for the past decades, the light of the Debrecen Flower Carnival has not been thrown on the horticultural teachers and researchers of Debrecen.

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Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein (PAF) production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plant
Published December 22, 2010
77-82

Under the „Molecular farming” research program (product vaccines and substances for medical use with gene manipulated plant) in 2007 in UD Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering Faculty of Agricultural Science Institute of Horticulture Department of Plant Biotechnology experiments were launched to transform tobacco plant by PAF an...tifungal protein. Our aim was to learn the transformation technics. We chose the
Nicotiana tabacum and PAF as model systems.
Our work was to express several different paf constructions in plants with nuclear and plastid transformation too. After that we confirmed the presence of paf gene in the level of DNA and RNA.

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Effects of a traditional agricultural sector’s decline in less favoured areas
Published November 13, 2012
109-114

Due to the effects of economic and political transformations, privatization and accession to the EU, Hungarian agriculture has gone through significant changes in the last two decades. As a result of continuous changes in the economic and regulatory environment, producers have to plan and maintain cultivation and adapt to the changing market ne...eds within continuously changing circumstances. These effects have resulted in a significant decline or in some cases, certain sectors have disappeared. These exercise a negative social and economic effect on all over the country, causing irreversible damages on those regions where agriculture is the only source of living. This paper discusses the effects of breakdown or disappearance of a traditional agricultural sector, namely the tobacco sector.

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