This study analyses how the level of postharvest technology’s development influences the economic efficiency of apple production with the help of a deterministic simulation model based on primary data gathering in producer undertakings. To accomplish our objectives and to support our hypotheses three processing plant types are included in the... model: firstly apple production with no postharvest and prompt sale after the harvest, secondly parallel production and storage combined with an extended selling period and thirdly production and entire postharvest infrastructure (storage, sorting-ranking, packing) with the highest level of goods production and continuous sales. Based on our results it can be stated that the parallel production (plantation) and cold storage, so the second case is proved to be totally inefficient, considering that the establishment of a cold storage carries enormously high costs with resulting a relative low plus profit compared to the first type of processing plant. The reason for this is that this type is selling bulk goods without sorting-grading or packaging; storage itself – as a means of continuously servicing the market - is not covered properly by the consumers. Absolute efficiency ranking cannot be established regarding the other two processing plants: plantation without post-harvest infrastructure resulting lower NPV, but a higher IRR, DPP and PI as developing a plantation and a whole post-harvest infrastructure. Former processing plant type is favourable considering efficiency ratios describing capital adequacy, while the latter is in terms of income generating capacity.
One of the most important groups of bioactive substances in apples are antioxidants, which have a health-preserving effect. The amount of these compounds varies not only during the ripening of the apple fruit, but also continuously during post-harvest storage. A growing group of health-conscious consumers are looking for apple varieties wit...h a nutritional value that satisfies their needs.
In the scope of our research, we examined 5 apple varieties originating from the Derecske horticultural site of KITE cPlc. in 2016. The plantation was planted to be suitable for intensive apple production. Samples were collected at the time of maturity (August-October) of the given variety. The 5 examined apple varieties (Gaia, Isaaq, Modí, Smeralda and Fujion) are all resistant to apple scab (fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis). The 2-month storage experiment was conducted at 16–17 °C, which had an aggressive effect on our stored apples. Total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content as well as FRAP values of the apples were measured. Measurements were taken immediately after harvest and after 1 and 2 months of storage. Our results were evaluated by using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software. Our aim was to compare the antioxidant results of 5 scab-resistant apple varieties, which change continuously during storage.
The antioxidant content of our apple varieties increased during 2 months storage. The best result was achieved by the Modí apple variety (FRAP: 467.32 mg/100g; TFC: 317.76 mg/100g; TPC: 1771.97 mg/100g). Consumers may want to consume apples stored for a longer period of time if they are to absorb large amounts of antioxidants.
In our present study, we performed a quick test of the antioxidant capacity of domestic fruit and vegetable cultivars with a PHOTOCHEM® instrument (Analytik Jena AG, Germany). The instrument is special because it can measure both the total lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity (ACL method) and the total water-soluble antioxidant capacity. Another... advantage of the system is its quick measurement. With similar instruments, such measurement can take several hours, while PHOTOCHEM® can perform it within a few minutes.
In our model studies, we examined the changes in the antioxidant capacity of sour cherry, green pepper, carrot, pumpkin, red beet and Brassica sp. cultivars. We aimed to determine how suitable the instrument is for quick, routine measurements in the case of the different horticultural products and which species have high antioxidant capacity values.
On the basis of our examinations, we can state that the PHOTOCHEM® system is suitable for routine, semi-automated measurements of the total antioxidant capacity at several vegetables and fruits. Besides this, the system can be used for testing the quality of food products, for monitoring storability in post-harvest technologies, and for special breeding programmes and for physiological and biotechnological studies.