This paper aims to make a settlement and micro region-level analysis in case of one of Hungary’s most backwater regions, the Hungarian-Ukrainian borderland. After a brief methodological and theoretical review, it creates a complex development indicator with the help of certain ratios belonging to appropriate groups. It analyzes the exceptiona...lly heterogeneous settlement-level values with applied statistics methods and tries to determine the role of population, population density, the distance from the nearest border-crossing point and the travel time from the centre of the micro region and the county. As its main findings the followings can be mentioned: there are significant development level differences in case of the „periphery of the periphery” micro regions which depend on the number of population, population density and the travel time from the centre of the micro regions.
The concept of social capital became well-known in the 1980s and as a non-material resource existing in the society and today it is one of the most popular fields of the sociological and economic research. There are many definitions of social capital, but there is a common point that they all have: a network-related interpretation. The networks... are made up of discrete elements, which have some kind of relation between them. Accordingly, social capital is manifested in the totality of the relations between elements (actors of the economy and society) forming the network not in the elements themselves (e.g. human capital). This is a resource which influences the social and economic processes of a community – even if it is a community of a micro region or a nation. Consequently, social capital has a significant impact on the development and improvement of an area or a territorial unit. In this paper, I try to summarise the information concerning social capital and to sketch the relation between rural development and social capital as one of the immanent resources of a territorial unit.
Most of the enterprises operating in Hungary belong to the group of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) which means that their total number of staff is less than 250. The aim of the study is to examine SMEs operating within the North Great Plain region. It provides a short summary of the general characteristics of the region, the situation and...significance of SMEs based on the data 2009 and it also clarifies the relevant definitions. The data shows that the enterprise type that is most characteristic in the the region is joint venture (the most popular type is Ltd). It can be laid down as a fact that the number of micro and sole entrepreneurs is also significant in the area. It is also clear that the majority of small enterprises deals
with commerce, while most of the medium enterprises are involved in industry (processing industry). As a continuation of the examination, size of investments, influx of foreign capital, ratio of employed people and grant opportunities are also to be evaluated since these factors influence the operation of enterprises as well.
The objective of this study is to present the concept and significance of special landscape values. The research explains special landscape values within landscape protection using Hungarian scientific literature as well as international and national law. In the last decades the measurement and conservation of non-protected landscapes and lands...cape elements were emphasised by landscape protection. One of the biggest research of the last years was TÉKA project, done by Corvinus University of Budapest Faculty of Landscape Architecture. The program dealt with surveying Hungarian landscape values. In this paper I am going to analyse the types of special landscape values and their frequencies on a plain region using an open database prepared by TÉKA program. In addition to the definition of special landscape values in the Érmellék loess ridge geographical micro region the study intends to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of using the database.
The study is going to reveal the role of landscape potential in spatial and rural development based on the analyses of scientific literature. The target area of the research is three micro regions in Hajdú-Bihar county. In addition to the analyses of scientific literature the study pays attention to the assay of local development concepts and...programmes. The conclusion of the study is that the analyses of landscape changes on micro regional level are obstructed by the lack of micro regional spatial development and substantive landscape plans.
According to the data of population density, 98% of Hungary’s territory has rural features. Gaining EU supports, in order to focus on developing the most underdeveloped communities, and in order to decrease – not to increase – the differences between communities, the establishment of priorities and determination of the rank of rural commu...nities based on their development potential is necessary. The claim of measurability arises because of comparison and classification. A possibility or a target area of measuring is analysing population retaining and income producing capability of rural areas.
To gain adequate, many-sided information about the development potentials of a given community, micro- or macro region, complex condition survey, as well as secondary information completed with empirical data and subjective value judgment is essential. The aim in every case is to gain experience of the present condition via determining the direction of change.
In this study, I deal with the clarification of the definition of population retaining ability and the ability to economically provide for a population and introduce the most important results of the inquiry with questionnaires completed in the frame of an empirical survey.