The greataest risk tograin production is fluctuation in market prices, which is over 50% over the course of a year; and year by year, as well. There are real market circumstances in the grain market, instead of state guaranteed fix prices, which was the norm under the former political system.
According to the general opinion of producers, lo
Hungary has a futures market (which is organized according to the CBOT system) in the grain sector, which is an unique institute in Europe. This organisation is suitable for hedge businesses and it has convenient technical and institutional background.
There are two possibilities to make hedge business. One of them is the short hedge with futures contract when the producer sells his product for long term if an acceptable profit is included in market price. In this case seller can protect himself against low market prices.
This technique can be considered as professional for price risk management, but possibly has financial cost because of the weak financial situation of Hungarian producers this solution seems expensive for them.
There is an other possibility in the Commodity Exchange for manage price risk, that is the option technique. This solution is suitable for insure prices as well, and has an other additional advantage, namely: there is no financial costs in this case.
Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made little damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species continually spreading in South and... Central Europe causing considerable damage in fruit crops and various ornamentals. Present study shows the results of a series of observations carried out from 2011 to 2015 at a number of habitats in north of Hungary. The pest could be found at each habitat but the hedge, the tree row, the gardens and the orchard/vineyard were the most infested. Frequency and population density of Metcalfa pruinosa were considerable on Asteraceae, Cannabaceae, Fabaceae, Juglandaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Sapindaceae. Typical vegetation could be functionally classified as ornamental plants, trees/shrubs, fruit plants, weeds and feral plants. Feral plants – some of them also invasive alien species – were found at each habitat. Plant species native to America were among them the most populated. As the hedgerows were neglected, and most gardens, orchards and vineyards abandoned, these are excellent conditions for the quick and long-lasting establishment of the pest as well as they may be reservoirs to infest cultivated fruit crops and ornamentals. The hedgerow was situated along a railway line. The length of similar hedges can be merely in Pest county several hundred km, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infest agricultural and ornamental cultures. On the surveyed alfalfa and maize fields, accidentally very few nymphs and adults were observed. Although, the population density of M. pruinosa was considerable on many hostplants, economic damage or yield losses could not be detected. Economic or significant damage was observed only on roses, raspberries and stinging nettle. This later is cultivated in Germany and Finland. The applied horticultural oil was efficient.
Agricultural hedgerows have various impacts on the surrounding cultivated area and on the landscape. They serve as a windbreak, help manage humidity and precipitation, and are also sources of plant species richness which can contribute to the animal biodiversity. One of their beneficial effects is the yield improvement of agricultural crops. Ou...r investigation tries to prove this hypothesis in Hungarian circumstances in the case of several winter wheat fields near Debrecen. Regarding the results, it seems that the majority of data supports the relevant, mainly German and Austrian information, but in some cases, the correlation has not been significant.