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Changes in the relationship between Hungarian Grey cows (Bos primigenius taurus hungaricus) and their calves in the period from calving to four months of age
Published May 26, 2022
85-90

The ability of cows to care for their offsprings is a very important trait concerning beef cattle. Maternal instincts are highly influenced by breed, specific cow, and social and rearing environment. In 2020, at the Szamárháti farm of the Tiszatáj Public Foundation, we selected 15 dam-calf pairs and studied them for four months from the ...birth of the calves. We grouped calf-rearing behaviors according to strength and analyzed the related changes during the program. At the beginning of the relationship, "standing close to each other" (53%) and "suckling" (24%) characterized the pairs. After the first month, "standing or lying separated" grew by 69%, and "vocalization" by both animals fell by 66%. Even though the daily frequency of suckling decreased by 34% as the calves grew older, it remained a typical element of the relationship. Over time, the bond between the animals gradually weakened. This natural process of separation takes a month to complete.

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22
68
The fishfauna of the Crişul Repede river and its threatening major factors
Published April 11, 2007
13-18

The Crişul Repede River is belonging at Cris (Körös) Rivers system which is a tributary on the left shore of Tisa River. In the last decades the fishfaunaofthenaturalwatershasundergoingadeclineinthespeciesnumber.Theothersuccessiveprocessisthefishspeciesreplacement due by the immigration of some exotically fishesandtheretirementofsomeofthenat...ivespecies.
The Crişul Repede fishfaunahasregisteredadeclinecausedmainlybytheriverdamming,waterpollutionandeutrophisation.Ondespite of that negative factors the fishesfromtheupperriverwasmaintainlessaffectedunliketotheotherrivers.Thereaftertheeconomical transition and the industries reorganization process were redounded to diminishing the impact of these harmful factors. The former studies about the Cris fishfaunacitedanumberof48nativespeciesand12exoticones.Duringtheresearchtripscarriedoutsince10yearsago (beginning in 1995) was identifiedanumberof40fishspeciesandthepresenceoftheother8 speciesarestilluncertain.Thesturgeonspecies Acipenser ruthenus and the migratory fishAnguillaanguillahaveascarcepresenceandtheycannotbefoundinthelastdecade.A number of 5 exotically fishesarebehavedasremarkableintrudersinnaturalwaters:Pseudorasboraparva,Carassiusauratusgibelio,Ictalurus nebulosus, Ictalurus melas, and Lepomis gibbosus. Some of the exotically fishesalreadyrecordedintheHungarianstretchesofthe Crisuri (Körös) was not recorded in the Romanian section of the river (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Ictiobus bubalus, Ictalurus punctatus, Clarias gariepinus, Micropterus salmoides, Oreochromis niloticus, Perccottus glenii). The pervading of these species is expecting also in the Romanian section of the rivers.
The present major threatening factors concerning the fishfaunaarerepresentedbythehabitatchanges.Theriverdammingandtheriverside levees have a negative influenceonthefishfauna.Theformerphenomenonofwaterpollutionitseemsthatisreplacedbythehabitat changes. The dam lakes caused unregulated fluctuationsonthewaterlevelandtemperaturedownstreamofit.Theembankmentforpreventing the floodingwasperformedthroughshorteningtherivermeander.Thelostmeandersoftheriversarerepresentinganoptimalhabitat for fishspawning.

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55
111
The changes of the ichthiofauna of river Berettyó and tributaries
Published April 11, 2007
106-112

In the spring and summer of 2005 I made ichtiologic research on the Barcau river in the area of Nusfalau – Saniob, as well as on its affluents.
The results obtained were compared to those of the previous research performed on the Barcau river and partially on its affluents. Wenoticed a decrease of the fish lot both from the qualitative and... the quantitative point of view, although the oil industry -the main source of pollution from this area – is in a temporary regress.
Given the fact that upstream Suplacu-de-Barcau there are construction works for a dam and an artificiallakewhichwillinfluencetheriver fauna, the current research shall allow the repeat of the research and the comparison between the results, the identification of the effects of these works on the fish population from this area.

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33
112
Study of changes in the strength of connection between grey cattle cows and their offspring after weaning
Published June 1, 2021
129-136

It is important to minimize stress for cattle because of animal welfare and profitability. This study aims to reveal how long after abrupt weaning the cow and her offspring show a need to rebuild the connection if physical barriers are removed and distances disappear. The research was carried out on Szamárhát Farm owned by the Tiszatáj F...oundation, Hungary. In the autumn of 2019, thirty-one calves were weaned, randomly selected from 81 grey cattle cows’ offspring. The oldest calf was 10 months old, while the youngest one was 6 months old on the day of weaning. They were divided into three groups and reunited with the cows during the first, third, and fifth weeks after weaning. Each reunion happened in the early afternoon and the cow and her offspring spent 24 hours together again. The formation and the strength of the connection were recorded for an hour three times during this period, first in the afternoon, then in the morning, and the next afternoon. It can be seen that both parties showed the need to form the connection during the first week after weaning because the bond made between them was obvious in a short time. The connections proved to be strong. However, neither the cows nor their offsprings showed any intention to form strong connections in the third and fifth weeks. In the majority of the cases, no connection was formed. 

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111
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