Water managed properties of apple and pear trees based on lysimeters

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant is constituted by foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On the one hand, the canopy absorbs solar energy, which is necessary for photosynthesis; on the other hand, it accumulates the nutrients absorbed by the roots, and most of the water-loss occurs through the foliage. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research, we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of the ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner, we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore, we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees. From the examined trees were made a 3D depiction, which show the shape, branching and the location of trees.

Correlation of pruning time and fruiting part differentiation of sweet cherry cultivars

There are several extended studies in sweet cherry production in Hungary and all over the world i.e. for creation and maintainence of smaller tree crown and high density orchards. The use of suitable dwarf rootstocks for this fruit species are very limited. On one hand, most of the draf rootstocks do not cause enough growth reduction and on the other hand these rootstocks are get old very quikcly and their fruits become small, and therefore, they not serve the requirements for intensification. In summary, there is a need for those rootstock which are vital, regeneration enhanching and delay ageing. Due to ensuring above features, Prunus mahaleb is still an obvious solution for intesive production. Increasing intensification can be obtained by use of modernisation of technological elements and suitable cultivar choice. 
According to this increasement of intensity through application of novel technological elements (timing, manner and severity of pruning) and selection of the proper cultivar is implement able. Important differences are experienced between sweet cherry cultivars in their growth attributes, light demand and dynamics of fall back in regenerative potencial of different aged wood parts. From this point knowledge of the abow detailed is very important in order to maintain rentability of already established plantations. Our work shows the formation of production part in
9-year old plantation with spike spindle and free spindle crown forms depending on pruning timing (winter, summer) and determining of their various effects. 

The effect of the dates of shoot selection and shoot tip removal on the growth of William’s pear trees

Increasing the intensity of production in the case of pear can be the solution to satisfy the market demand forr high-quality fruit. The aims in this technology are the canopy treatments and the maintainance of consistently high quality yields in the long run. The experiments were performed with cv. William’s pear, a cultivar grown on large areas in Hungary. To create the optimal canopy shape for earlier fruiting, we performed shoot selection and the cutting back of shoot tips. Our results show, that both pruning methods – applied at 3 different dates – decreased the number of short fruiting parts (spurs), and increased the number of vegetative shoots. The sole exception was from this the effect of shoot tip removal when done at the earliest date.