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The Effect of Smut Gall Tumour Infection on Iron and Zinc Uptake and Distribution in Maize Seedlings
Published December 14, 2004
27-32

The amounts of Fe, and Zn were measured in maize seedlings infected by smut gall tumour (Ustilago maydis Dc. Cda.) and in healthy seedlings five days after infection. The amount of elements was also measured under different stress intensities. Due to the infection, as a biotic stress, the amount and distribution of examined elements have been c...hanged. On the bases of the differences in the Fe distribution between the symptoms less and tumorial leaf parts, we have come to the conclusion that the infection also effects the mobilisation of Fe and Zn inside the plants. The Fe uptake was much higher in the infected plants and the tumour development also had an effect on the uptake and distribution of the examined elements. The experiments of infecting maize seedlings by monosporidial strain of crown gall tumour showed no tumour development. We found that the monosporidial strain also acts as a biotic stress and has an effect of iron and zinc distribution. We observed a slight difference in the iron and zinc contents in the roots of corn seedlings infected by different monosporidial sporidium concentrations, while the iron and zinc contents in the shoots were increased by the intensity of the infection. The roots do not form tumours. There is no difference between the roots of the infected and healthy corn seedlings. Since the Fe and Zn contents of the shoots of infected plants depend on the intensity of the infection, we have come to the conclusion that there must exist a „special” communication system regulating the transportation of the examined elements.
In the experiments with infected maize seedlings, it became necessary to get the iron chlorosis before the disease reaches the lethal phase. Although most of the iron reserves are located in the embryo, to accelerate the chlorosis, the endosperm was removed, and it was observed, that the iron chlorosis appears later in maize seedlings when the endosperm is removed. The relative chlorophyll content of the first and second leaves was measured in iron efficient and iron deficient maize seedlings at different times.
The higher IAA content of tumorial plant tissues is already known. The treatment with IAA decreases the iron concentration in the shoots and in the roots of +Fe precultured plants and increases at -Fe precultured ones. The TIBA retards the shoot-to-root transport of IAA. When the seedlings were treated simultaneously with IAA and TIBA, higher iron concentrations were observed in the shoots and in the roots of corn seedlings.
We found extremely high iron concentrations in the roots of infected seedlings and, in line with this, serious damage to the roots was observed that this can be caused by the high iron content generated free radicals. The results demonstrate that IAA has a role in the shoot to root communication.

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Micropropagation of Rudbeckia hirta L. from seedling explants
Published May 23, 2006
53-59

We conducted experiments for developing an in vitro micropropagation protocol starting from meristems of Rudbeckia hirta L seedlings. We pre-soaked the seeds in sterile ion-exchanged water for 17 hours, and then achieved surface disinfection in two separate steps. First, we used concentrated household sodium-hypochloride solution for 20 minutes... and, also for 20 minutes, we applied hydrogen peroxide of 10%, which was followed by washing with sterile ion-exchanged water three times. For the propagation of seedling meristems, the combination of half-strength solid Murashige and Skoog (1962) culture medium containing 10 mg/l of kinetin and 2 mg/l of kinetin + 0.1 mg/l of 2iP proved to be the most suitable. The average number of shoot-buds developed from the seedling axillary meristem in the best culture media varied between 5 and 17. Without separating them, we inoculated the shoot-bud clusters on MS culture medium containing 2 mg/l of IAA. After four weeks of incubation, we obtained elongated shoots, which we separated and inoculated into a new culture medium and from which we obtained elongated roots. The rooted plants were gradually acclimatised in the cultivation room, potted and carried to a greenhouse, and then planted in open field for subsequent observation. By adopting this method, our laboratory started the micropropagation of the superior and/or elite genotypes of the Rudbeckia hirta L. being of special value in respectt to breeding.

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The influence of biostimulators in the growth of some shrubs
Published October 5, 2010
49-52

More sensitive than Mimosa pudica and more beautiful than any adornment detached from nature by man, the azalea (Azaleea
indica) gathers through its shapes a real symphony of colours and enchanting hues, of elegant shapes, having no rival in the flower world.
The azalea can multiply through seeds and vegetatively: seedlings, grafting, lay...ering.
The widest reproduction method remains that through semilignified seedlings, a method that can be used throughout the year
avoiding the months less favourable for propagation by seedlings, with poor light: November and October. The best results are given by the
spring propagations by seedlings (February-March) and the summer propagations by seedlings (July-August). The rooting can last for 12-14
weeks until the seedlings can be transplanted in flower pots without risks.
A wide application in horticultural practice is the use of growth substances, that take part in the faster formation of roots and in a
higher percent for species of plants, that, normally, root with difficulty through seedlings. Under this aspect, many synthetical compounds
have proved to be very active (IAA, NAA, IBA, 2,4,5-T acid etc.) (3,4).

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