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Wheat cleaning and milling technologies to reduce DON toxin contamination
Published December 15, 2019

Mycotoxicosis caused by Fusarium fungi holds a huge risk considering economic and food safety issues worldwide. By applying milling technologies, we attempted to reduce the concentrates of DON toxin, as it is the most often found toxin in wheat.

The processes of sieving, aspiration and combination had been used on wheat with high DON concentration. As a next step, grains were sorted using a horizontal cylinder separator, assorted by an optical and a gravity separator, and finally, the products were scoured and ground. The contamination level of the wheat and flour samples were defined by the HPLC-MS method.

Regarding the results, it can be stated that toxin concentration was most effectively reduced by optical separation and scouring, and by applying these milling techniques, food safety can be increased significantly.

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Utility of Winter Wheat According to Visual and Microbiological Fusarium Infection, as Well as Toxin Examination
Published November 26, 2003

In 1998 the Fusarium infection was studied visually and microbiologically and also F-2, T-2, HT-2, DAS and DON contamination were measured using 22 winter wheat samples. The correlation between the different parameters of 22 wheat samples were determined by regression analysis. According to our results we can state the following.
There is no... significant connection between the results of visual, microbiological and toxicological examinations. This means that no certain conclusion can be drawn about the toxin contamination of samples – which is a determining factor of its utility – based on the visual symptoms and the plate dilution method.
Our results indicate however – though it is not proven statistically – that those samples in which the Fusarium infection did not exceed the limit of the standard, also had low toxin contamination, therefore they can be used as components of forage.
It is a considerable problem, however, that according to the visual qualification, such samples are excluded from the later utilisation, wherein the toxin contamination does not justify such action. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the toxin content of those samples which show high infection by visual symptoms. To reducing the number of expensive toxin examinations it would be advisable to change the currently used 0,5% limit which is indicated in the standard for a higher value of infection, for example to 2%, as recommended by Mesterházy (1998).

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Germination and sugar content alteration in maize grain caused by Fusarium contamination
Published November 10, 2010

Healthy and Fusarium affected ears were collected in Fészerlak, Somogy County at the end of vegetation cycle of maize (25-30 August). Each pattern contains 25-25 ears. We compared the samples on the basis of visual image of Fusarium affection. The ears were shelled and two 0,5 kg samples were formed: healthy and Fusarium contaminated. After su...rface sterilisation the uniform sized seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water for 24 hours and there were germinated for 7 days. The α-amylase activity was measured with Phadebas- α-amylase test. Seeds were extracted one by one three times under reflux using 10 cm3 boiling water for 15 minutes. During our investigation germinating activity was detected to measure glucose, fructose, sucrose content and α-amylase activity. In the first seven days of germination the highest values were detected in control seeds followed by the affected seeds. Our results clearly show that stress conditions applied altered not only the saccharide content but decreased their germinating activity as well in the case of maize grain.

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A tárolási feltételek hatása a kukorica Fusarium fertőzöttségére és toxin szennyezettségére
Published March 27, 2002

Corn samples harvested in 1997, 1998 and 1999 from different soil types were stored at different conditions (temperature, moisture content, state of kernels) for six months. The Fusarium contamination was examined by plate dilution method and the amount of mycotoxins (F-2, T-2, HT-2, DON, DAS) were determined applying HPLC method immediately af...ter harvesting and in the third and sixth month of storage. The aim of our study was to find correlation between the ecological factors, storage conditions and the examined parameters mentioned above, as well as to prove them statistically. According to the examinations carried out after harvesting we could state that the soil type had no effect on the parameters. Analysing the effect of the years we found considerable differences. The Fusarium infection of corn samples in 1998, while the toxin contamination in 1999 was the highest. The results of storage experiment show that year (number of microscopic fungi, F-2, T-2, HT-2, DAS and total toxin content) and moisture content of kernels (F-2, T-2, and total toxin content) have a significant effect on the examined parameters. We could prove the effect of temperature on the T-2 content (samples with natural moisture content) and DON content (samples with 14% moisture content). Higher values were found at higher temperature storage. The ratio of damaged kernels influenced the DON concentration in the non- wetted samples and the number of microscopic fungi in the wetted samples.

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