Current Issue

Vol 4, No 2 (2021)

Published December 30, 2021

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Articles

THE FREQUENCY OF USE OF EEG AND NEUROFEEDBACK IN SPORT, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Increasing athlete performance is an eternal challenge in the world of sports. The success of the training work performed can be checked by performance diagnostics. Proper brain processing is essential for skill learning and the implementation of effective motor performance. It was important for brain mapping technology to improve the capabilit...ies of imaging devices in order to measure cognitive-motor performance in the field. The primary purpose of this review was to summarize the frequency of applications of EEG and its associated neurofeedback in sport. Examine the differences and characteristics of protocols. Assess whether there is this uniform, standardized protocol for each sport and how often it is used among both elite and amateur athletes. Electroencephalography was initially used most in sports in which the stable setting was followed by only minimal movement. These include sport shooting, archery and golf and baseball. Later, it was possible to analyze more complex movements with EEG, such as cycling. One of the most commonly used techniques is neurofeedback training, but despite some research on the topic, the arena of neurotechnology in sports psychology still exists in its rudimentary form and is constrained by a plethora of technological problems.

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A STUDY ON THE INCIDENCE OF GOALS AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCORING THE FIRST GOAL AND WINNING THE MATCH IN THE HUNGARIAN BEACH SOCCER CHAMPIONSHIP

Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years an only a minimal number of scientific research has been conducted in this area. The beach soccer is characterized by high intensity (HR max above 90 %) intermittent movements, which primarily requires the involvement of the anaerobic metabolic system. The objective of this s...tudy was: (i) to analyze the incidence of goals in the Hungarian Beach Soccer Championship in relation to the periods of the game that tend to occur; (ii) to identify the team that scored the first goal of the game, analyzing the influence of this event  on the final result  (iii) to identify and quantify the periods of the match won by the winner team. We examined all the goals (n = 1.065) in the Hungarian Championship (2016-2017) of beach soccer. We found that nearly 38 percent of goals are scored in the last period of the matches, the team that scores the first goal of the game features an average 74.44 percent probability of winning.  We observed, that almost 24 percent of the teams, which achieved overall success also earned the 1st and 3rd periods. Thus, it is suggested that the higher incidence of goals in the 3rd period of the matches is associated mainly with the interaction of physical and psychological factors. Regarding the influence of the first goal on the final result, we assumed that the psychological factor appears to interfere with greater relevance.

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CHANGES IN SPINAL RANGE OF MOTION AFTER 16 WEEKS TRAINING PROGRAM IN PUBERTAL CHILDREN

The aim of the present research was to improve the neglect behavior of pubertal children in an intervention program. Within the framework of the program, the main function of the spinal column and the strength and extensibility of the muscles responsible for posture were investigated. The participants included in the study are 7th grade chi...ldren of the Neumann János Elementary School in Szombathely, Hungary, (nb=7); (ng=10). The Idiag M360 Spinal Mouse was used to investigate the physiological curvatures and main function of the spinal column before and after the program. The device was used to examine the children's spines in standing, bending forward and again in a standing position after the Matthiass test was performed. Pre-intervention (1) and post-intervention (2) data showed significant decreases in all assessed characteristics and similar increases in sacrum to hip ratio (Sac/Hip) (9.83±4.36 - 21.63±4.39); p<0.000.  The greatest change was found in the Th11/12 dorsal vertebral body angles (4.50±2.05 - -0.30±0.25); p<0.000. As a result of the postural improvement program, the degree of pelvic tilt and, in parallel, the physiological curvature of lumbar lordosis was reduced to within the age-specific reference values.

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CREATININE AND CREATINE KINASE RATIO IN BLOOD OF DIFFERENT BODY TYPES - A NEW APPROACH.

Purpose: The inconsistencies and variations of creatine kinase level due to modifiable and non-modifiable factors were the basis of this study. The aim was to find out the relationships between creatinine and creatine kinase in the blood of somatotypes. 

 

Methods: The 122 males, aged ...10 to 20 years, were classified according to their somatotypes. Somatotypes were measured by the ISAK method. By standard laboratory methods, creatinine and creatine kinase estimate. The IBM SPSS version 24 is used for calculation. One way ANOVA followed by post hoc tests was performed to compare the variables among the three groups (p<0.05).

 

Results: Creatinine level in the blood insignificantly deferred among the three somatotypes. The significant differences (p<0.05) were found in creatine kinase level in the blood and creatinine/creatine kinase ratio among the three dominant Somatotypes. Creatine Kinase was significantly higher in Ectomorphs (212 U/L) than Endomorphs. Ectomorphs and mesomorphs have crossed normal creatine kinase levels (35 -175 U/L). The creatinine/creatine kinase ratio was found highest in endomorphs and lowest in the ectomorphs and significantly differed in three Somatotypes.

 

Conclusion: Creatinine production remains the same, indicating production of Creatinine is independent of specific body types. A significant higher Creatine Kinase level in Ectomorphs over Endomorphs showed fat content was not associated with it. Significant differences in Creatinine / Creatine Kinase ratio among Somatotypes suggested its relevance between cellular and morphological relationships and might uses as biomarkers. 

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EVOLUTION OF THE COMPONENTS OF SPORTSMANSHIP AND AGGRESSION IN TERMS OF WATER POLO PLAYER POSITIONS

Two commonly used constructs in sport psychology researches are aggression and sportsmanship. In the present research, we attempted to assess the correlations between these two phenomena among male water polo players. The main objective was to explore the differences in aggression in the sport-specific positions of water polo in different a...spects - physique, age, etc. - considered. Furthermore, the research sought to demonstrate the inverse relationship between aggression and sportsmanship in a water polo sample. To access these constructs in our research besides the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and the Sportsmanship Attitude Scale a self-formulated water polo specific questionnaire was used, which intended to measure the aggression in the water during water polo matches. From the results, it can be seen that, according to our sample, both the trait aggression of the players and the role determined by their positions in the game play a decisive role when it comes to the aggression of an athlete. Moreover, the results obtained for water polo players also proved that sportsmanship and aggression are two contradictory constructs.

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RELATIONSHIP NETWORK CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORTS AND NON-SPORTS YOUNG ADOLESCENTS

From school onwards, children spend more and more time with their peers without direct adult supervision. In peer groups, the emphasis is on shared interests, understanding and trust, rather than joint activities. The biological changes associated with adolescent sexual maturation also lead to changes in social relationships. The topic is p...articularly topical now, in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, when opportunities for face-to- face communication have been significantly reduced, leading in many cases to a transformation of relationships.  

Playing sport expands the individual's range of experience: he or she is exposed to a new social environment, has the opportunity to form new relationships, and encounters a new set of values and norms. All this shapes their personality, their individuality and has an impact on their whole life. However, many children today do not play sport regularly, partly because of the increased mental workload and demands and the resulting lack of time. In my research, I was looking for answers to the question of how regular sporting activities affect the social relationships of young adolescents. As the data from my research show, regular sporting activity has a beneficial effect on both the extension and the intensity of children's relational networks, especially for those playing team sports.

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KÜLÖNBÖZŐ ÉTRENDEK, DIÉTÁK HATÁSA A SPORTTELJESÍTMÉNYRE

Az emberi test üzemanyaga a táplálék, pontosabban az abban található tápanyagok, ezért még a nem sportolóknak is kiemelt figyelmet kell fordítani arra, mi az, amit megesznek. A sportolóknak ennél is fontosabb, hogy kialakítsák a teljesítményt optimalizáló táplálkozási szokásokat. A teljesítményoptimalizálásnak a s...porttáplálkozás az egyik legnagyobb, az utóbbi időben egyre jobban előtérbe kerülő lehetősége. Számos speciális étrend létezik, ezek közül talán a legismertebbek: ketogén diéta, mediterrán étrend, vegetarianizmus, paleo diéta. Étrendünket úgy kell megválasztanunk, hogy közben az egészségmegőrzés is fontos szempont maradjon. Nem szabad megfeledkeznünk arról, hogy egészen más tápanyagszükséglete lehet például egy hosszútávfutónak egy súlyemelővel szemben. Nincs azonban két egyforma ember, eltérő az egyének genetikai adottsága, testsúlya, testösszetétele, mozgásintenzitása, az anyagcseréje és a cél amit el szeretnének érni, éppen ezért az egyes sportágakon belül az egyénre szabott étrend-összeállítás eredményezi a legjobb teljesítményt. Tanulmányunkban célul tűztük ki az említett szempontok alapján a különböző összetételű étrendek, diéták hatásának elemzését a sportteljesítményre. Munkák során a Google és Pubmed oldalakon gyűjtöttünk, tekintettünk át releváns tartalmakat. Összességében azt mondhatjuk, hogy a helyes táplálkozás kialakítása sokszorosan megtérülő befektetés lehet. A sport, mint fizikai aktivitás meghatározza az életmódot, beleértve a táplálkozást is. A helyes, kiegyensúlyozott táplálékbevitel mind a sportolók, mind a nem sportolók számára elengedhetetlen.

 

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