Bond Graph Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor: PMLSM Motor Based EVs Applications

The high-performance feature of the Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor (PMLSM) makes it a reliable and valuable motor for use in the automotive industry, especially for electric vehicle (EVs) applications. This research proposes a bond graph approach in modeling the PMLSM as a multi-domain dynamical system.

However, A time-based simulation was performed using 20-sim software to simulate the dynamical behavior of the motor. An equivalent model of the motor was first obtained and then modeled and simulated using 20-sim software. The model of the PMLSM drive system was modeled separately and incorporated with PMLSM Motor equivalent model to form a global model.

 Moreover, the motor drive system response was studied based on the sensor resolutions and the inverter switching frequency. The block diagram and the transfer function methods validated the bond graph model obtained. Two classical PIs such as continuous and discrete were implemented on the motor response to control the velocity of the motor.

Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Volkswagen Crafter with 2.0 TDI CR Diesel Engine: VW Vehicle 2020 Based PMSM Propulsion

The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) used by conventional vehicles is one of the major causes of environmental global warming and air pollutions. However, the emission of toxic gases is harmful to the living. Electric propulsion has been developed in modern electric vehicles to replace the ICE.

The research is aimed at using both Simulink and SIMSCAPE toolboxes in a MATLAB to model the vehicle. This research proposes a Volkswagen (VW) crafter with a 2.0 diesel TDI CR engine, manufactured in 2020. An electric power train, a rear-wheel driven, based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) was designed to replace the front-wheel driven, diesel engine of the VW conventional vehicle.

In this research, a Nissan leaf battery of a nominal voltage of 360 V, 24 kWh capacity was modeled to serve as the energy source of the overall system. A New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) was used in this research. Another test input such as a ramp was also used to test the vehicle under different road conditions. However, a Proportional Integral (PI) controller was developed to control both the speed of the vehicle and that of the synchronous motor. Different drive cycles were used to test the vehicle. The vehicle demonstrated good tracking capability with each type of test. In addition, this research found out that there is approximately about 19% more benefit in terms of fuel economy of electric vehicles than the conventional vehicles.