The study aimed to analyze the process of Landuse/Landcover change of two rural communes (Saé
Saboua and Chadakori) of Maradi region (Republic of Niger) over the past 28 years (1986 – 2014),
through landscape structure analysis by diachronic cartographic approach and landscape indices. Mixed
classification of temporal series of Land
classes, namely ”cultivated land under shrubs and trees”, ”cultivated land under trees”, “continuous
cropland”, ”fallow/pasture land”, ”forest reserve”, and ”settlement”. The composition and structure of
the studied landscapes have greatly changed from 1986 to 2014. The class ”cultivated land under trees”
was the landscape matrix in 1986 with 38.65% of landscape total area but in 2001 and 2014 the class
”continuous cropland” became the landscape matrix. The changes also affected the ”forest reserve”
which was transformed to smallholder agricultural land from 1986 to 2014. The area occupied by
classes ”cultivated land under trees” changed from 38.65% in 1986 to 8.78% in 2014; and from 1986
to 2014, the area occupied by ”fallow/pasture land” has decreased of about 16%. The decrease in these
classes was in favor of ¨continuous crop land¨, ¨settlement¨ and “cultivated land under shrubs and trees”
which respectively gained 38%, 0.3% and 8.15% of their areas in 1986. The results of this study reflect
the problem of access to land and even land saturation in semi-arid region, a consequence of strong
population growth. They also contribute to a better rethinking of agricultural practices in order to initiate
adaptation and resilience strategies for the population facing food insecurity and poverty.
The remote sensing techniques provide a great possibility to analyze the environmental processes in
local or global scale. Landsat images with their 30 m resolution are suitable among others for land
cover mapping and change monitoring. In this study three spectral indices (NDVI, NDWI, MNDWI) were
investigated from the aspect of land c
(V); grassland (GL) and built-up areas (BU) using Landsat-7 ETM+ data. The range, the dissimilarities
and the correlation of spectral indices were examined. In BU – GL – F categories similar NDVI values
were calculated, but the other land cover types differed significantly. The water related indices (NDWI,
MNDWI) were more effective (especially the MNDWI) to enhance water features, but the values of other
categories ranged from narrower interval. Weak correlation were found among the indices due to the
differences caused by the water land cover class. Statistically, most land cover types differed from each
other, but in several cases similarities can be found when delineating vegetation with various water
content. MNDWI was found as the most effective in highlighting water bodies.
The level of land consumption for housing and transport contrasts sharply with both the necessity and
the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs of
current and future generations in terms of resource protection and climate change. Owing to the
increasing intensity of soil usage,
natural filter and run-off regulating functions of soils are impaired or even disappeared altogether by
land surfacing. Since such soil functions closely depend on the soil’s biophysical properties, the
decline of water balance functionality caused by urbanisation and increasing imperviousness varies.
In response to the demand to sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly
how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating the urban land use
change and the respective imperviousness on the long-term water balance ought to improve our
general understanding of the water household related impact of urbanisation. Therefore, the aim of
this paper is to assess the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term water
balance over a 130-year trajectory using the example of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid
to evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.
Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest of the world that lies in Bangladesh and India. This paper examined the correlation among population dynamics of Sundarbans impact zone (SIZ) from 1974 to 2011; impact of climate change on the forest; and changes in land cover of the forest from 1973 to 2010. Population size of SIZ was increased by 1.6...times between 1974 and 2011, whereas decreased by 2% during 2001 to 2011. During 1973 to 2010, water bodies, barren land and vegetated land reduced by 7.35%, 49.56% and 15.92% respectively; while grass land increased by 228.14% during the same period. But both population size and vegetated land declined during 2001 and 2011. This was due to the landfall of two severe cyclones in 2007 and 2009 through Sundarbans which resulted thousands of human casualties and out migration, and destruction of the forest. In addition, anthropogenic interventions like low flow from Ganges River and policy constraints also contributed to the demolition of Sundarbans. Thus, population growth, climate change and anthropogenic interventions are playing a decisive role to the depletion of forest resources from the Sundarbans mangrove forest.
In the past few decades there has been an increasing pressure of population all over the world,
especially in India, resulting in the utilization of every available patch of available land from
woodlands to badlands. The study area represents a basin which is economically growing fast by
converting the fallow lands, badlands and woodla
IRS (Indian Remote sensing Satellites) 1 C – LISS III and IRS 1 C PAN and IRS P6 – LISS III and
IRS 1 D PAN Images were merged to generate imageries with resolution matching to the landscape
processes operating in the area. The images of the year 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2007 were analyzed to
detect the changes in the landuse and landcover in the past ten years. The analysis reveals that there
has been 20% increase in the agricultural area over the past ten years. Built up area also has increased
from 1.35% to 6.36% of the area and dense vegetation also has marginally increased. The remarkable
increase in the agricultural area occurs owing to the reclaim of the natural ravines and fallow lands.
Presently the area looks promising, but it is necessary to understand the sedimentological and
geomorphological characteristics of the area before massive invasion on any such landscapes because
the benefit may be short lived.
The Siltara Industrial belt is an important industrial pocket of Chattisgarh state located in the northern part of the Raipur city, which is rapidly growing. In this process spatial, cultural, political and administrative factors are controlling its rate, direction and pattern. The Simple Linear Regression (SLR) and Multi-Objective Land Allocat...ion (MOLA) techniques, which are embedded in SPSS and Idrisi Kilimanjaro software respectively, and have been used for the estimation of future scenario of the industrial growth. In this model, a suitable platform has been prepared in which future industrialization has been estimated by integrating physical, social, cultural factors and land acquisition policy. In this article, results have revealed that industrialization has occurred very fast during last one decade. The industrial land was 6.15 km2 in 2001 and 18.725 km2 in 2011 and estimated as 31.30 km2 in 2021 and 43.87 km2 in 2031 using SLR. The rapid industrial growth is very critical issues for agrarian society and fresh environment. This model very accurately estimating (overall accuracy=95.39%, Kno=97.24%, agreement=98.63 %) the future growth of industrial land. This work will be useful to the planners and policy makers of private and government sectors to regulate the sustainable planning practices and smart decision-making.
During the second half of the 20th century, agriculture and the rural environment diverged in Western
and Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). CEE countries itself are heterogeneous in the
respect of land use intensity and history. In the current review we focus on the comparison of the
agricultural sector and threats on biod
Eastern Europe and the old EU(15) member states. The clustering of countries revealed groups
distinguished according to the level of their economic productivity, discriminating mostly among
eastern and western European countries. CEE countries sub-divided according to geographic region,
including also some old members of the EU. Within the western cluster, two large sub-clusters
became evident according to economy affected by altitudinal and climatic differences. Partly because
there are still areas where the intensity of land use remained low, the biological diversity in many
regions of Central and Eastern Europe has remained high. However, loss of extensively used habitats,
the restoration on intensive agriculture, reforestation with exotic species and urbanization are major
threats to nature in CEE countries. The estimated variability among CEE countries is caused by
different historical and cultural backgrounds of those countries. Due to the complexity and
geographical diversity of driving forces, there remains much uncertainty in the possible impacts of
particular factors on land use. This complexity and diversity have to be considered when planning
economic as well as ecological means for developing the agricultural sector and conserving
biodiversity in the future of CEE countries.
In this paper I describe some of the ways in which landscape ecology principles have been incorporated into land use planning and change. In Scotland we have tried developing landscape-scale or
regional plans for land use change to resolve issues of habitat fragmentation – the ‘big plans’ of the
title. We have also developed ‘litt
sites. My conclusion is that both of these approaches are weak in directing land use change at the
scale necessary, and that a system which ‘scores’ land manager-generated proposals is a more useful
Climate change has caused pressure on water resources in Jordan. This was accompanied by the Syrian refugee crisis during the period 2009 to 2019. This descriptive study was conducted in the University of Debrecen, during the years 2020 and 2021 within the course of sustainable land use by collecting official statistical data from reliable sour...ces in Jordan on the production of tomato, pepper, and paprika during five years 1999, 2004, 2009, 2014 and 2019 to compare the change in land use, crop sown structure, country production, unit area average yield and estimation of unit area pollution with major nutrients. The study showed an increased land used for the production of vegetables by (+ 37.84%) during the period from 2004 to 2014, high productivity per hectare for three crops from 2014 to 2019. Jordan had the highest tomato and paprika crop yields in 2014. The reason is due to the increase in the local and global demand for these crops along with other reasons, which have promoted the use of mass production agricultural techniques, the most important of which is chemical fertilization. Which caused the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium in soils.
Green spaces are playing an essential role for ecological balance and for human health in the city as well.
They play a fundamental role in providing opportunities for relaxation and enjoying the beauty of nature
for the urban population. Therefore, it is important to produce detailed vegetation maps to assist planners
in designing str
for climate change adaptation in one fast growing city. Hence, this research is an investigation using 0.5
m high-resolution multispectral Pléiades data integrated with GIS data and techniques to detect and
evaluate the spatial distribution of vegetation cover in Erbil City. A supervised classification was used
to classify different land cover types, and a normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used
to retrieve it for the city districts. Moreover, to evaluate the accessibility of green space based on their
distance and size, a buffer zone criterion was used. The results indicate that the built-up land coverage
is 69% and vegetation land cover is 14%. Regarding NDVI results, the spatial distribution of vegetation
cover was various and, in general, the lowest NDVI values were found in the districts located in the city
centre. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of vegetation land cover regarding the city districts was
non-equal and non-concentric. The newly built districts and the districts far from the Central Business
District (CBD) recorded the lowest vegetation cover compared with the older constructed districts.
Furthermore, most of the districts have a lack of access to green spaces based on their distance and size.
Distance and accessibility of green areas throughout the city are not equally distributed. The majority of
the city districts have access to green areas within radius buffer of two kilometres, whereas the lowest
accessibility observed for those districts located in the northeast of the city in particular (Xanzad,
Brayate, Setaqan and Raperin). Our study is one of the first investigations of decision-making support
of the spatial planning in a fast-growing city in Iraq and will have a utilitarian impact on development
processes and local and regional planning for Erbil City in the future.
Historical geographic studies on land cover may support the understanding of the recent state. Focusing on coal mining, this process was followed and analyzed in the case of the East Borsod Coal Basin from the early 20th century to the political change. The contemporaneous maps and manuscripts concerning the mining were evaluated using geoinfor...matic techniques. Moreover, digitalized topographic map coming from the early and late period of mining (1924 and 1989, respectively) were analyzed. To determine the degree of human disturbance hemerobic relations and changes of the given land cover patches were quantified on the basis of the maps of the three military surveys, too. It can be stated that montanogenic subtype of an industrialagricultural landscape has been formed in the Bükkhát area. Beside the concentrated artificial surfaces, however, relative dominance of forest forming the matrix of the landscape remained.
Floods slowing down due to the significant decrease of the gradient have considerable sediment accumulation capacity in the floodplain. The grade of accumulation is further increased if the width of the floodplain is not uniform as water flowing out of the narrow sections diverge and its speed is decreased. Surface roughness in a study area of...492 hectares in the Upper Tisza region was analysed based on CIR (color-infrared) orthophotos from 2007. An NDVI index layer was created first on which object-based image segmentation and threshold-based image classification were performed. The study area is dominated by land cover / land use types (grassland-shrubs, forest) with high roughness values. It was concluded that vegetation activity based analyses on their own are not enough for determining floodplain roughness.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing are presently recognized generally as an improve instrument for overseeing, breaking down, and showing gigantic volumes of fluctuated information suitable to numerous neighborhood and provincial arranging exercises. Because of the composite idea of the travel industry arranging issues, the... planned of GIS in settling these issues is progressively perceived. This paper will think a portion of the conceivable outcomes of GIS applications in the travel industry arranging. For the most part, GIS applications in the travel industry have been tight to recreational office stock, the travel industry situated land the board, and diversion untamed life strife; and have been thin by absence of financing, and awkward techniques. Utilizing the case of site wellness investigation for the travel industry improvement and mapping, this paper features a few uses of GIS in the travel industry arranging in vaishali square, Bihar. According to our present investigation; the most reasonable the travel industry site recognized by the examination is inside significant towns. The urban focus with plausibility to develop into the travel industry focuses. The rest of the land shows a low appropriateness scale because of absence of significant appreciation for make a solid force factor. Availability is an essential for the travel industry advancement. Great street organize availability with closeness to railroads station or air terminal demonstrated solid vacationer potential site, this combined with proximity to grand magnificence delineates high appropriateness. Significant vacation destinations, for example, legacy locales, gardens and water bodies or lake demonstrated high appropriateness. This can be corresponded to the way that legacy destinations and other high appropriate highlights are converted into reasonable the travel industry site.
Satellite images are important information sources of land cover analysis or land cover change monitoring. We used the sensors of four different spacecraft: TM, ETM+, OLI and ALI. We classified the study area using the Maximum Likelihood algorithm and used segmentation techniques for training area selection. We validated the results of all sens...ors to reveal which one produced the most accurate data. According to our study Landsat 8’s OLI performed the best (96.9%) followed by TM on Landsat 5 (96.2%) and ALI on EO-1 (94.8%) while Landsat 7’s ETM+ had the worst accuracy (86.3%).
Remote sensing resources are usually used in research to better understand urban built-up density, spatial structure and the processes of change. Based on results of image segmentation, landscape metrics indexes, texture and pattern may be analyzed beside the spatial changes in urban reflectance. Social processes within the settlement can be an...alyzed efficiently, although the census data may also be connected to the urban land cover data through geoinformation systems. On the research project different parameters of urban segments, i.e. patch number, mean patch area, total patch area, total patch perimeter, patch density and edge density, formations that make up the urban pattern were analyzed. Urban functional districts of different built-up density were separated using appropriate indexes, and extending the database with spectral content made it possible to review district boundaries and to mark new boundaries due to these changes.
In the land surveying profession fast changes have been taking place in the last fifty years. Technological changes are generated by the Information and Communication Technologies; the analogue – digital trends; the automatic data acquisition methods replace manual ones; instead of two-dimensional base maps we use dynamic spatial databases mo...re and more integrated into a global data infrastructure. However, these changes cause impacts also on scientific level. The traditional top-down approach substituted by bottom-up methodologies; in many cases the point-by-point measurement is changed by 3D laserscanning or Unmanned Aerial Systems, which produces huge amount of data, but it needs new algorithms for information extraction; instead of a simple data provision land surveyors support complex spatial decisions. The paper is dealing with some aspects of these changes. In the first chapter the authors would like to highlight the “data-information-knowledge” relations and the importance of changes in professional education. The second chapter gives an example of the benefits of a Global Spatial Data Infrastructure in spatial decision support. Finally we introduce a new concept (Building Information Modelling) in modelling the real world. However, until now BIM is used in building construction industry, it can can be a paradigm shift in geospatial information management in general.
The article points to several very up-to-date issues that occur in relation with the vanishing of traditional forms of land use and introduction of new, other than indigenous, management styles in Poland. Current processes of deterioration of the structure of the cultural landscapes have been discussed with regard to natural values and the hist...orical process of land management by man. The article is a peculiar case study for quite common negative transformation of the polish countryside caused by relatively free use of the space, legal negligence, low awareness and poor identification of residents with the landscape – the countryside which loses its peculiar and typical features as the result of “mass consumption”. The text also presents positive examples of care taken for the regional landscape and lists initiatives aimed at improving the image of polish area.
The term of “desertification” refers to a land degradation processes of arid, semiarid and sub-humid
areas. Although the concept originates from Sub-Saharan Africa, desertification threatens also the area
of Hungary. The greatest desertification risk is in the central part of the country, in the Danube-Tisza
Interfluve where drough
are mainly due to climate change. Temperature increase and precipitation decrease as well as the increase
of the frequency and amplitude of extreme events contribute to the acceleration of desertification risk.
Severe or moderate droughts occur in Hungary nearly every year. Drought frequency has increased,
primarily in the last decades. Main findings of several research projects of MEDALUS II and III EU
Framework projects (experiments on the effects of climate change on vegetation, soils and ground water
level) are summarized in the paper.
In our paper we examined the opportunities of a classification based on descriptive statistics of NDVI
throughout a year’s time series dataset. We used NDVI layers derived from cloud-free Sentinel-2 images
in 2018. The NDVI layers were processed by object-based image analysis and classified into 5 classes, in
accordance with Co
accuracy. We described the reasons for the disagreement in case of the most remarkable errors.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of restoration of a stream section. The starting point of the multiple-step assessment process was a historical analysis, which resulted in the definition of different sections within the study area, providing a base for the further restoration goals. The assessment of the current condition...s was elaborated particularly to determine those factors, which could limit restoration. These assessments cover the land use pattern, furthermore the analysis of vegetation and habitat patches. As a result of the historical analysis, it has been found that the stream side habitat patches have decreased significantly despite the constant space available. This change was not caused by the increased area of the settlement, but rather by the higher dominancy of arable forms of land use. The greatest share of wet and mesic meadows and agricultural habitats in the study areas, covering 57.5% of the total area, indicates significant anthropogenic effects. Consequently it can be stated that the reference conditions are not the only determining factors of the restoration possibilities. Restoration style and intensity have been defined on basis of all assessed factors.
This paper introduce a historical geographical study on the process of land cover transformation in the Bükk Region, which can be regarded as a two-faced area concerning its anthropogenic disturbance. Based on historic mapping that began as early as the late 18th century, a database was produced, and the data was interpreted in the...context of economic and social processes that took place in the area. Results could be presented in maps using the so-called Anthropogenic Disturbance Index (ADI). These maps demonstrate the peculiar land use pattern in the Bükk Region, namely co-habitation of the significantly transformed margins and the natural or quasi-natural central part. Between them, there are linear areas of intermediate disturbance. These areas, however, due to the foundation and activity of the Bükk National Park and modification of their economic value after the change of the political system, have not increased during the last several decades; rather a re-naturalization of the landscape is aimed.
There are rather limited opportunities for using the results of landscape ecology in practical nature
conservation. The reasonS for this are – at least partly – the different scales and frames of the two
fields. For more effective cooperation there is an opportunity for landscape ecology to determine
patch-gradients that are helpfu
species via CORINE land use-pattern in mixed use agricultural areas. Such alternative migration
tracks become valuable in places, where landscape ecological corridors and stepping stone places are
missing. The method applies the gradient concept of landscape structure of McGarigal and Cushman
(2005). Determination of patch-gradients can be a good background material for settlement- and
infrastructure planning; and for the elaboration of medium- and long term nature protection concepts
or for even general landscape protection strategies as well.
Change of climate can be a remarkable turning point in the 21st century history of mankind. An important task of landscape geographic research is forecasting environmental, nature protection, land use demands and helping mitigation of disadvantageous processes from the aspect of society. ALADIN and REMO numeric climate models predict strong war...ming and lack of summer precipitation for the area of Hungary for the period between 2021 and 2100. There is a predicted growth in frequency of extreme weather events (heat waves, droughts hailstorms). Changes have been forecasted using data presented in table 1. For analyses of complex landscape geographic impacts of climate change the area of Hungary have been divided into 18 mesoregions with 5.000-10.000 km2 area each (figure 1). The main aspect of choosing the regions was that they should have homogeneous physical, geographic and land use endowments and, for this reason, they should react to climate change the same way. Relationships between landscape forming factors and meteorological elements examined by us have been taken into consideration. Results of analyses of impacts of the meteorological factors on the changes of relief through the mass movements are presented in this paper. Changes of landscape sensibility of mesoregions to mass movements have been presented in the last chapter for the periods between 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 according to numeric climate models.
The retention of surface runoff and the preservation of soil moisture are among the most important water-related ecosystem services. In addition to field monitoring, advanced remote sensing techniques have been devised to reveal soil moisture dynamics on agricultural land. In our study we compare two soil moisture indices, TWI and SAVI, in thre...e agricultural areas with different land use types. The SAVI has been found suitable to point out spatial variation on the moisture conditions of the vadose zone.
Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer
the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the
monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to
legislation that hampers a more diversified manage
valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more
attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m
deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources)
and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the
process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some
negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are
situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be
reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of
experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by
interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.