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Modelling the effects of long-term urban land use change on the water balance
143-159

The level of land consumption for housing and transport contrasts sharply with both the necessity and
the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs of
current and future generations in terms of resource protection and climate change. Owing to the
increasing intensity of soil usage, in many urban landscapes the soil conditions has deteriorated. The
natural filter and run-off regulating functions of soils are impaired or even disappeared altogether by
land surfacing. Since such soil functions closely depend on the soil’s biophysical properties, the
decline of water balance functionality caused by urbanisation and increasing imperviousness varies.
In response to the demand to sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly
how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating the urban land use
change and the respective imperviousness on the long-term water balance ought to improve our
general understanding of the water household related impact of urbanisation. Therefore, the aim of
this paper is to assess the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term water
balance over a 130-year trajectory using the example of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid
to evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.

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38
Landuse/landcover change process in a tropi¬cal semi-arid zone: case of two rural com¬munes (Chadakori and Saé-Saboua) in Maradi region, Republic of Niger
1-12

The study aimed to analyze the process of Landuse/Landcover change of two rural communes (Saé
Saboua and Chadakori) of Maradi region (Republic of Niger) over the past 28 years (1986 – 2014),
through landscape structure analysis by diachronic cartographic approach and landscape indices. Mixed
classification of temporal series of Landsat images led to identifying six Landuse/Landcover (LULC)
classes, namely ”cultivated land under shrubs and trees”, ”cultivated land under trees”, “continuous
cropland”, ”fallow/pasture land”, ”forest reserve”, and ”settlement”. The composition and structure of
the studied landscapes have greatly changed from 1986 to 2014. The class ”cultivated land under trees”
was the landscape matrix in 1986 with 38.65% of landscape total area but in 2001 and 2014 the class
”continuous cropland” became the landscape matrix. The changes also affected the ”forest reserve”
which was transformed to smallholder agricultural land from 1986 to 2014. The area occupied by
classes ”cultivated land under trees” changed from 38.65% in 1986 to 8.78% in 2014; and from 1986
to 2014, the area occupied by ”fallow/pasture land” has decreased of about 16%. The decrease in these
classes was in favor of ¨continuous crop land¨, ¨settlement¨ and “cultivated land under shrubs and trees”
which respectively gained 38%, 0.3% and 8.15% of their areas in 1986. The results of this study reflect
the problem of access to land and even land saturation in semi-arid region, a consequence of strong
population growth. They also contribute to a better rethinking of agricultural practices in order to initiate
adaptation and resilience strategies for the population facing food insecurity and poverty.

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336
Landscape change in Aizawl city: A geospatial approach to assess landscape indices and human-induced transformation
65-81

The change in an area’s natural surroundings is called landscape change. This change may be gradual or accelerated depending on the factors that influence the change. Natural elements such as native animals and birds seldom bring about any modification to the environment. However, human-induced change is devastating and severely transforms the environment. Such environmental transformation can be evaluated with the land use/ land cover assessment through satellite imagery and calculation of landscape indices. This paper attempts to ascertain the direction and the nature of the human-induced change in the city of Aizawl. To this end, the city has been divided into four zones to enable inter-zone comparisons. A northeast and southwest direction of human landscape transformation has been ascertained with the help of GIS and remote sensing techniques and landscape indices in Aizawl city.

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Population an land cover dinamics of Sundarbans impact zone is Bangladesh
1-13

Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest of the world that lies in Bangladesh and India. This paper examined the correlation among population dynamics of Sundarbans impact zone (SIZ) from 1974 to 2011; impact of climate change on the forest; and changes in land cover of the forest from 1973 to 2010. Population size of SIZ was increased by 1.6 times between 1974 and 2011, whereas decreased by 2% during 2001 to 2011. During 1973 to 2010, water bodies, barren land and vegetated land reduced by 7.35%, 49.56% and 15.92% respectively; while grass land increased by 228.14% during the same period. But both population size and vegetated land declined during 2001 and 2011. This was due to the landfall of two severe cyclones in 2007 and 2009 through Sundarbans which resulted thousands of human casualties and out migration, and destruction of the forest. In addition, anthropogenic interventions like low flow from Ganges River and policy constraints also contributed to the demolition of Sundarbans. Thus, population growth, climate change and anthropogenic interventions are playing a decisive role to the depletion of forest resources from the Sundarbans mangrove forest.

154
8
Big plans and little plans: delivering land use change designed by landscape ecology
68-74

In this paper I describe some of the ways in which landscape ecology principles have been incorporated into land use planning and change. In Scotland we have tried developing landscape-scale or
regional plans for land use change to resolve issues of habitat fragmentation – the ‘big plans’ of the
title. We have also developed ‘little plans’ – much smaller proposals based on individual designated
sites. My conclusion is that both of these approaches are weak in directing land use change at the
scale necessary, and that a system which ‘scores’ land manager-generated proposals is a more useful
new approach.

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Land use changes of the riparian landscape in Hungary between 1990 and 2018
82-95

The protection and the restoration of rivers is one of the most important challenges of our time, due to the impact of human activities. The aim of the research was to assess the land use changes in the Hungarian riparian landscape. Several landscape corridors of different (50-100-300-500 m) widths near rivers were analyzed since 1990, using the CORINE Land Cover database. Positive changes in the land use of riparian landscape can be seen: continuous increase in the case of forest areas; and slight decrease in the extent of agricultural land since 1990. Unfortunately, the extent of grasslands and other near-natural areas is reduced; and there has been a steady increase in built-up areas. Examining the changes in built-up areas in more detail, a big increase is shown by the extent of urban green areas. As a continuation of the research, an evaluation methodology is being developed to determine the restoration potential of urban rivers on study area level and on national level. The results presented in this paper on land use changes and land use conditions can be useful for the research about restoration potential at national level.

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10
Specific features of NDVI, NDWI and MNDWI as reflected in land cover categories
194-202

The remote sensing techniques provide a great possibility to analyze the environmental processes in
local or global scale. Landsat images with their 30 m resolution are suitable among others for land
cover mapping and change monitoring. In this study three spectral indices (NDVI, NDWI, MNDWI) were
investigated from the aspect of land cover types: water body (W); plough land (PL); forest (F); vineyard
(V); grassland (GL) and built-up areas (BU) using Landsat-7 ETM+ data. The range, the dissimilarities
and the correlation of spectral indices were examined. In BU – GL – F categories similar NDVI values
were calculated, but the other land cover types differed significantly. The water related indices (NDWI,
MNDWI) were more effective (especially the MNDWI) to enhance water features, but the values of other
categories ranged from narrower interval. Weak correlation were found among the indices due to the
differences caused by the water land cover class. Statistically, most land cover types differed from each
other, but in several cases similarities can be found when delineating vegetation with various water
content. MNDWI was found as the most effective in highlighting water bodies.

714
180
Statistical Indices of Land Use Changes and Nutrients Balance of Tomatoes and Peppers Production in Jordan Valley and Highlands (1999-2019)
65-76

Climate change has caused pressure on water resources in Jordan. This was accompanied by the Syrian refugee crisis during the period 2009 to 2019. This descriptive study was conducted in the University of Debrecen, during the years 2020 and 2021 within the course of sustainable land use by collecting official statistical data from reliable sources in Jordan on the production of tomato, pepper, and paprika during five years 1999, 2004, 2009, 2014 and 2019 to compare the change in land use, crop sown structure, country production, unit area average yield and estimation of unit area pollution with major nutrients. The study showed an increased land used for the production of vegetables by (+ 37.84%) during the period from 2004 to 2014, high productivity per hectare for three crops from 2014 to 2019. Jordan had the highest tomato and paprika crop yields in 2014. The reason is due to the increase in the local and global demand for these crops along with other reasons, which have promoted the use of mass production agricultural techniques, the most important of which is chemical fertilization. Which caused the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium in soils.

143
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Land use change detection along the Pravara River basin in Maharashtra, using remote sensing and GIS techniques
71-86

In the past few decades there has been an increasing pressure of population all over the world,
especially in India, resulting in the utilization of every available patch of available land from
woodlands to badlands. The study area represents a basin which is economically growing fast by
converting the fallow lands, badlands and woodlands to agricultural land for the past few decades.
IRS (Indian Remote sensing Satellites) 1 C – LISS III and IRS 1 C PAN and IRS P6 – LISS III and
IRS 1 D PAN Images were merged to generate imageries with resolution matching to the landscape
processes operating in the area. The images of the year 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2007 were analyzed to
detect the changes in the landuse and landcover in the past ten years. The analysis reveals that there
has been 20% increase in the agricultural area over the past ten years. Built up area also has increased
from 1.35% to 6.36% of the area and dense vegetation also has marginally increased. The remarkable
increase in the agricultural area occurs owing to the reclaim of the natural ravines and fallow lands.
Presently the area looks promising, but it is necessary to understand the sedimentological and
geomorphological characteristics of the area before massive invasion on any such landscapes because
the benefit may be short lived.

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146
Analysis of landscape geographic impacts of potential climate change in Hungary
41-50

Change of climate can be a remarkable turning point in the 21st century history of mankind. An important task of landscape geographic research is forecasting environmental, nature protection, land use demands and helping mitigation of disadvantageous processes from the aspect of society. ALADIN and REMO numeric climate models predict strong warming and lack of summer precipitation for the area of Hungary for the period between 2021 and 2100. There is a predicted growth in frequency of extreme weather events (heat waves, droughts hailstorms). Changes have been forecasted using data presented in table 1. For analyses of complex landscape geographic impacts of climate change the area of Hungary have been divided into 18 mesoregions with 5.000-10.000 km2 area each (figure 1). The main aspect of choosing the regions was that they should have homogeneous physical, geographic and land use endowments and, for this reason, they should react to climate change the same way. Relationships between landscape forming factors and meteorological elements examined by us have been taken into consideration. Results of analyses of impacts of the meteorological factors on the changes of relief through the mass movements are presented in this paper. Changes of landscape sensibility of mesoregions to mass movements have been presented in the last chapter for the periods between 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 according to numeric climate models.

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Vegetation changes of Sundarbans based on Landsat imagery analysis between 1975 and 2006
1-9

The Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world. This forest is threatened by effect of climate change and manmade activities. The aim of this paper is to show changes in vegetation cover of Sundarbans since 1975 using Landsat imagery. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is applied to quantify and qualify density of vegetation on a patch of land. Estimated land area (excluded water body) of this forest is 66% in Bangladesh, and 34% in India, respectively. Net erosion since 1975 to 2006 is ~5.9%. In vicinity of human settlement, areal changes are not observed since 1975. The mangrove forest is decreased by 19.3% due severe tropical cyclone in 1977 and 1988. Moreover, the dense forest is damaged by about 50%. However, more than 25 years is taken by Sundarbans to recover from damage by a severe tropical cyclone. The biodiversity of Sundarbans depends to fresh water flow through it. Therefore, the future of Sundarbans depends to the impact of climate change which has further effect to increasing intensity and frequency of severe tropical cyclone and salinity in water channels in Sundarbans.

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Spatial distribution of vegetation cover in Erbil city districts using high-resolution Pléiades satellite image
10-22

Green spaces are playing an essential role for ecological balance and for human health in the city as well.
They play a fundamental role in providing opportunities for relaxation and enjoying the beauty of nature
for the urban population. Therefore, it is important to produce detailed vegetation maps to assist planners
in designing strategies for the optimisation of urban ecosystem services and to provide a suitable plan
for climate change adaptation in one fast growing city. Hence, this research is an investigation using 0.5
m high-resolution multispectral Pléiades data integrated with GIS data and techniques to detect and
evaluate the spatial distribution of vegetation cover in Erbil City. A supervised classification was used
to classify different land cover types, and a normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used
to retrieve it for the city districts. Moreover, to evaluate the accessibility of green space based on their
distance and size, a buffer zone criterion was used. The results indicate that the built-up land coverage
is 69% and vegetation land cover is 14%. Regarding NDVI results, the spatial distribution of vegetation
cover was various and, in general, the lowest NDVI values were found in the districts located in the city
centre. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of vegetation land cover regarding the city districts was
non-equal and non-concentric. The newly built districts and the districts far from the Central Business
District (CBD) recorded the lowest vegetation cover compared with the older constructed districts.
Furthermore, most of the districts have a lack of access to green spaces based on their distance and size.
Distance and accessibility of green areas throughout the city are not equally distributed. The majority of
the city districts have access to green areas within radius buffer of two kilometres, whereas the lowest
accessibility observed for those districts located in the northeast of the city in particular (Xanzad,
Brayate, Setaqan and Raperin). Our study is one of the first investigations of decision-making support
of the spatial planning in a fast-growing city in Iraq and will have a utilitarian impact on development
processes and local and regional planning for Erbil City in the future.

157
12
Transformation of land use pattern in the East Borsod coal basin from the beginning of minig industry to the political changes
223-231

Historical geographic studies on land cover may support the understanding of the recent state. Focusing on coal mining, this process was followed and analyzed in the case of the East Borsod Coal Basin from the early 20th century to the political change. The contemporaneous maps and manuscripts concerning the mining were evaluated using geoinformatic techniques. Moreover, digitalized topographic map coming from the early and late period of mining (1924 and 1989, respectively) were analyzed. To determine the degree of human disturbance hemerobic relations and changes of the given land cover patches were quantified on the basis of the maps of the three military surveys, too. It can be stated that montanogenic subtype of an industrialagricultural landscape has been formed in the Bükkhát area. Beside the concentrated artificial surfaces, however, relative dominance of forest forming the matrix of the landscape remained.

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Is desertification a problem in Hungary?
242-247

The term of “desertification” refers to a land degradation processes of arid, semiarid and sub-humid
areas. Although the concept originates from Sub-Saharan Africa, desertification threatens also the area
of Hungary. The greatest desertification risk is in the central part of the country, in the Danube-Tisza
Interfluve where drought has always been a huge problem for the local society. Aridification processes
are mainly due to climate change. Temperature increase and precipitation decrease as well as the increase
of the frequency and amplitude of extreme events contribute to the acceleration of desertification risk.
Severe or moderate droughts occur in Hungary nearly every year. Drought frequency has increased,
primarily in the last decades. Main findings of several research projects of MEDALUS II and III EU
Framework projects (experiments on the effects of climate change on vegetation, soils and ground water
level) are summarized in the paper.

164
4
Comparative analysis of Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI and EO-1 ALI satellite images at the Tisza-tó area, Hungary
53-62

Satellite images are important information sources of land cover analysis or land cover change monitoring. We used the sensors of four different spacecraft: TM, ETM+, OLI and ALI. We classified the study area using the Maximum Likelihood algorithm and used segmentation techniques for training area selection. We validated the results of all sensors to reveal which one produced the most accurate data. According to our study Landsat 8’s OLI performed the best (96.9%) followed by TM on Landsat 5 (96.2%) and ALI on EO-1 (94.8%) while Landsat 7’s ETM+ had the worst accuracy (86.3%).

255
11
Analysis of the connection between urban land cover and census districts using geoinformatical methods
52-67

Remote sensing resources are usually used in research to better understand urban built-up density, spatial structure and the processes of change. Based on results of image segmentation, landscape metrics indexes, texture and pattern may be analyzed beside the spatial changes in urban reflectance. Social processes within the settlement can be analyzed efficiently, although the census data may also be connected to the urban land cover data through geoinformation systems. On the research project different parameters of urban segments, i.e. patch number, mean patch area, total patch area, total patch perimeter, patch density and edge density, formations that make up the urban pattern were analyzed. Urban functional districts of different built-up density were separated using appropriate indexes, and extending the database with spectral content made it possible to review district boundaries and to mark new boundaries due to these changes.

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14
Evaluation of the possibilities for stream restoration: preassessment of the Váli-stream (Hungary)
26-44

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of restoration of a stream section. The starting point of the multiple-step assessment process was a historical analysis, which resulted in the definition of different sections within the study area, providing a base for the further restoration goals. The assessment of the current conditions was elaborated particularly to determine those factors, which could limit restoration. These assessments cover the land use pattern, furthermore the analysis of vegetation and habitat patches. As a result of the historical analysis, it has been found that the stream side habitat patches have decreased significantly despite the constant space available. This change was not caused by the increased area of the settlement, but rather by the higher dominancy of arable forms of land use. The greatest share of wet and mesic meadows and agricultural habitats in the study areas, covering 57.5% of the total area, indicates significant anthropogenic effects. Consequently it can be stated that the reference conditions are not the only determining factors of the restoration possibilities. Restoration style and intensity have been defined on basis of all assessed factors.

194
10
A historic geographic approach to the anthropic disturbance in the Bükk region
58-65

This paper introduce a historical geographical study on the process of land cover transformation in the Bükk Region, which can be regarded as a two-faced area concerning its anthropogenic disturbance. Based on historic mapping that began as early as the late 18th century, a database was produced, and the data was interpreted in the context of economic and social processes that took place in the area. Results could be presented in maps using the so-called Anthropogenic Disturbance Index (ADI). These maps demonstrate the peculiar land use pattern in the Bükk Region, namely co-habitation of the significantly transformed margins and the natural or quasi-natural central part. Between them, there are linear areas of intermediate disturbance. These areas, however, due to the foundation and activity of the Bükk National Park and modification of their economic value after the change of the political system, have not increased during the last several decades; rather a re-naturalization of the landscape is aimed.

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Boundless settlements – tendencies and future of urban sprawl in the agglomeration of Budapest
75-88

The Budapest agglomeration is a rapidly changing environment. Urban sprawl has been a prominent process in municipalities around the Hungarian capital, and its pace has significantly increased since the change of regimes. In our paper, we analyse the tendencies of urban development, the role of territorial protection and the types of land use mostly threatened by urban sprawl in two study areas within the Budapest agglomeration. A significant part of the Northern study area – located on Szentendre Island – is under territorial protection, while the Southern study area – located on Csepel Island – has a considerably lower amount of protected areas. We found that the settlements of the Northern study area have been expanding at a much slower pace than their Southern counterparts, where in the absence of effective restrictions, extensive areas – mostly former agricultural fields – have been converted into built-up areas. In addition, the Spatial Plan of the agglomeration allows the same tendencies to continue in both areas in the future as well.

151
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Correction of Atmospheric Haze of IRS-1C LISS-III Multispectral Satellite Imagery: An Empirical and Semi-Empirical Based Approach
63-74

The atmospheric effect greatly affects the quality of satellite data and mostly found in the polluted urban area in the great extent. In this paper, the atmospheric correction has been carried out on IRS-1C LISS-III multispectral satellite image for efficient results for the Raipur city, India. The atmospheric conditions during satellite data acquisition was very clear hence very clear relative scattering model of improved dark object subtraction method for the correction of atmospheric effects in the data has been carried out to produce the realistic results. The haze values (HV) for green band (band 2), red band (band 3), NIR band (band 4) and SWIR (band 5) are 79, 53, 54 and 124, respectively; were used for the corrections of haze effects using simple dark object subtraction method (SDOS). But the final predicted haze value (FPHV) for these bands are 79, 49.85, 21.31 and 0.13 that were used for the corrections of haze effects applying improved dark object subtraction method (IDOS). We found that IDOS method produces very realistic results when compared with SDOS method for urban land use mapping and change detection analysis. Consequently, ATCOR2 model provides better results when compared with SDOS and IDOS in the study.

216
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Landscape shape index, as a potencial indicator of urban development in Hungary
78-88

The study of settlement shape, morphology and structure is a classic topic of urban geography. Since the 1960s multiple shape indices have been developed. Urban patterns were then compared with geometric forms or, alternatively their temporal changes were tracked and analysed. In the current study we adapted the landscape shape index (LSI) to analyse the historical shape development of eight Hungarian cities. The LSI is capable to demonstrate the functional and mutual relationship between the developed area and their immediate physical and natural environment. Over the past 230 years the land area of the studied cities has increased manifold for several reasons: on average, an areal increase of 10.4 to 24.5 was observed for the eight settlements, while their perimeter increased by 8.8 to 30.3 times. Simultaneously with their size growth, the studied cities are characterized by an increasingly fragmented and dissected ground plans. Consequently, due to the longer border between the developed areas and the adjacent natural zones, urban areas have become increasingly sensitive to environmental effects over the past century, while mutual ecological and environmental interactions has also considerably increased between the adjoining zones. In general, cities of hilly and low-mountain areas had the highest LSIs, whereas cities located on relatively flat grounds had comparatively low LSIs. We also investigated the rank correlation of the historical change of LSI of the studied settlements. Cities of high positive correlations (> 0.9) were classified into two major categories. Miskolc, Pécs, Szeged and Kecskemét belonged to the group of higher LSIs, whereas Székesfehérvár and Nyíregyháza fell into the class of medium LSIs and the third category included Debrecen and Győr, cities of low (< 0.9) LSIs. Based on the temporal trends of the LSIs, our results provide applicable information for decision makers in order to monitor, manage and track their investments, city management policies and infrastructural development strategies.

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