In term of floods the current area of Hungary has extensively been endangered. Modelling of flood processes – mainly following the hydrological events in the riverbed – has recently been developed. As far as protection dykes provide protection of the inhabited and agricultural areas, the flood models can run with acceptable preciseness. How...ever, when dykes cannot withstand against the increasing load and a dyke burst occurs, fast and efficient protection measures shall be taken in the protected areas. The dynamic 4D Flood model presented in this paper makes possible a fast modelling of dyke burst occurring in the protected side and spreading of water mass, based on real parameters. For this reason the features of protected area shall be recognised, for example topology of creeks, features of agricultural and inhabited areas, parameters of roads, railways, rainwater drainage, buildings, natural conditions (soil parameters, meteorological characteristics, etc.). The results satisfy the comprehensive demands of the Directorate General for Disaster Prevention of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. In case of dyke burst, the completed Flood Model can run the expected events of the next hour in a few minutes. This time is enough for the specialists to bring operative decisions to protect the inhabitants and avoid material losses.
Abstract The paper presents the role of urban environmental protection in sustainable development while analysing the factors influencing the environmental consciousness of the inhabitants of a middle-sized town based on a general model, together with the role of environmental consciousness in solving environmental protection problems at settle...ment level. My particular research focused on characterising the environmental state of Vác, with a population of 35000 people, and on the knowledge and environmental consciousness of the inhabitants. In the course of the representative questionnaire survey, 439 people gave assessable answers. Questions were related to the most significant environmental problems (air pollution, water contamination, sewage treatment, waste management). Answers were compared to the real situation based on measurements. Results revealed that the knowledge of the inhabitants on local environmental problems is better than the national average. In certain relations (water contamination, sewage treatment), however, it is deficient, thus information transfer was studied separately as well. It can be stated that local governments should make greater efforts in order to inform inhabitants. Environmental attitude of the inhabitants can be regarded as good. Based on the general model, I analysed the tasks of the settlement to improve environmental consciousness in order to increase efficiency of urban environmental protection.
The atmospheric effect greatly affects the quality of satellite data and mostly found in the polluted urban area in the great extent. In this paper, the atmospheric correction has been carried out on IRS-1C LISS-III multispectral satellite image for efficient results for the Raipur city, India. The atmospheric conditions during satellite data a...cquisition was very clear hence very clear relative scattering model of improved dark object subtraction method for the correction of atmospheric effects in the data has been carried out to produce the realistic results. The haze values (HV) for green band (band 2), red band (band 3), NIR band (band 4) and SWIR (band 5) are 79, 53, 54 and 124, respectively; were used for the corrections of haze effects using simple dark object subtraction method (SDOS). But the final predicted haze value (FPHV) for these bands are 79, 49.85, 21.31 and 0.13 that were used for the corrections of haze effects applying improved dark object subtraction method (IDOS). We found that IDOS method produces very realistic results when compared with SDOS method for urban land use mapping and change detection analysis. Consequently, ATCOR2 model provides better results when compared with SDOS and IDOS in the study.
One of the main sources of contaminants in the soil is industrial activity which has become one of the major environmental problems of the last few decades. The development of geoinformatics as well as the introduction of standards and regulations has led to a decreased risk of soil contamination and the cost-effective optimization of remediati...on activities. Based on the above, the aim of our study is to demonstrate the geoinformation processing of the remediation performed in an industrial area located in the Great Hungarian Plain, with special regard to the estimation of the amount and spread of the contaminants accumulated in the soil. In order to reveal the lithological and hydrogeological properties of the investigated area and the environmental status of the underground areas, we performed a large number of shallow land drillings (115). During the field sampling, 1000–1500 grams of samples were collected from the drill bit and were processed in an accredited laboratory. Based on the concentration and volume models created it can be concluded that with the estimations performed via modeling, we were able to locate the most critical areas from the standpoint of contamination. It was revealed that the focal point of the contaminants accumulated in the soil was in the central part of the investigated area. Furthermore, the model demonstrated the effect of lithological factors, since contaminants tend to accumulate more heavily in cohesive soils compared to porous rocks. The extent of contaminant concentration in the aquifer increased with decreasing depth; however, after reaching the floor clay the extent of contaminant concentration began to decrease. The lithological layer closest to the surface contained the most contaminants.
The Siltara Industrial belt is an important industrial pocket of Chattisgarh state located in the northern part of the Raipur city, which is rapidly growing. In this process spatial, cultural, political and administrative factors are controlling its rate, direction and pattern. The Simple Linear Regression (SLR) and Multi-Objective Land Allocat...ion (MOLA) techniques, which are embedded in SPSS and Idrisi Kilimanjaro software respectively, and have been used for the estimation of future scenario of the industrial growth. In this model, a suitable platform has been prepared in which future industrialization has been estimated by integrating physical, social, cultural factors and land acquisition policy. In this article, results have revealed that industrialization has occurred very fast during last one decade. The industrial land was 6.15 km2 in 2001 and 18.725 km2 in 2011 and estimated as 31.30 km2 in 2021 and 43.87 km2 in 2031 using SLR. The rapid industrial growth is very critical issues for agrarian society and fresh environment. This model very accurately estimating (overall accuracy=95.39%, Kno=97.24%, agreement=98.63 %) the future growth of industrial land. This work will be useful to the planners and policy makers of private and government sectors to regulate the sustainable planning practices and smart decision-making.
Adaptation to climate change demands the optimal and sustainable water management in agriculture, with an inevitable focus on soil moisture conditions. In the current study we developed an ArcGIS 10.4. platform-based application (software) to model spatial and temporal changes in soil moisture in a soy field. Six SENTEK Drill & Drop soil mo...isture sensors were deployed in an experimental field of 4.3 hectares by the contribution of Elcom Ltd. Soil moisture measurement at each location were taken at six depths (5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 cm) in 60-minute intervals. The model is capable to spatially interpolate monitored soil moisture using the technique. The time sequence change of soil moistures can be tracked by a Time Slider for both the 2D and 3D visualization. Soil moisture temporal changes can be visualized in either daily or hourly time intervals, and can be shown as a motion figure. Horizon average, maximum and minimum values of soil moisture data can be identified with the builtin tool of ArcGIS. Soil moisture spatial distribution can be obtained and plotted at any cross sections, whereas an alarm function has also been developed for tension values of 250, 1,000 and 1,500 kPa.
The in-flight aerial icing phenomena is very important for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) because it causes some serious problems such as reduced lift and increased drag forces, significantly decreased angle of attack, increased weight, structural imbalances and improper radio communications. In order to increase flight safety of UAV’s we... develop an integrated meteorological support system for the UAV pilots, mission controllers and decision makers, too. In our paper we show the in-flight structural icing estimation method as a part of this support system based on a simple 2D ice accretion model predictions. We point out the role of the ambient air temperature, cloud liquid water content, airfoil geometry and mainly the true airspeed in the icing process on the wings of UAVs. With the help of our model we made an estimation of geometry and amount of ice accretion on the wing of a short-range and a high-altitude and long-endurance UAVs during a hypothetical flight under a typical icy weather situation with St clouds over the Carpathian-basin (a cold-pool situation case study). Finally we point out that our icing estimation system can easily be adapted for supporting the missions of UAVs.
Preliminary wind climate information are required for the selection of the sites of energetic wind
measurements. Optimal locations of wind energy projects, where the amount of utilizable wind
energy can be forecasted with a good approach, can be determined using GIS and statistical methods.
Anyhow, it is necessary to elaborate methods
a given location on the base of measured data. Monthly number of windy days can be such predictor
if its basic statistical parameters and its connection to the monthly mean wind power can be
determined. This latter one can be substituted by the area under the curve of the function fitted to the
hourly averages of the cubes of the wind speeds. A regression modell is fitted to the monthly number
of windy days and areas under the curve, on the base of time series of 7 Hungarian weather stations
and the error of the modell is determined. On this base, the modell is extrapolated to a 35 years long
period. The area under the curve proportional to the monthly mean wind power calculated on the base
of the monthly number of windy days show a significant decreasing trend in 4 Hungarian weather
The University of Debrecen, Department of Meteorology has carried out research into the climatic and social-economic conditions of the Hernád valley in the scope of a scientific project (OTKA K 75794) between 2009 and 2012. The aim is to find out the optimal area for wind and solar energy, as well as biomass utilization. Our purpose is to work... out a model wherein the complex evaluation of natural and social-economic conditions and effects can eventually result in a sustainable and conflictfree land use. The results of the research will be useful in working out a regional improvement based on the use of renewable energy sources to help the local decision-making process.
This study evaluated the use of 40 cm spatial resolution aerial images for individual tree crown delineation, forest type classification, health estimation and clear-cut area detection in Fenyőfő forest reserves in 2012 and 2015 years. Region growing algorithm was used for segmentation of individual tree crowns. Forest type (coniferous/decidu...ous trees) were distinguished based on the orthomosaic images and segments. Research also investigated the height of individual trees, clear-cut areas and cut crowns between 2012 and 2015 years using Canopy Height Models. Results of the research were examined based on the field measurement data. According to our results, we achieved 75.2% accuracy in individual tree crown delineation. Heights of tree crowns have been calculated with 88.5% accuracy. This study had promising result in clear cut area and individual cut crown detection. Overall accuracy of classification was 77.2%, analysis showed that coniferous tree type classification was very accurate, but deciduous tree classification had a lot of omission errors. Based on the results and analysis, general information about forest health conditions has been presented. Finally, strengths and limitations of the research were discussed and recommendations were given for further research.
The Eocene transgressive deposits of the Acıgöl, Burdur and Isparta basins are the best exposed of the SW Turkey and shed light on one of the outstanding problems of the tectono-sedimentary evolution during paleotectonic and neotectonic period. In the present paper we describe a tectonic model of the progressive foreland migration of the allo...chthonous units such as Lycian and Antalya nappes, initial emplacement onto stable carbonate platform in the Early Oligocene, carrying piggy-back basins and incorporating from alluvial fan to deep-marine deposits recognized in these terrigenous successions. In general, the facies and structural observations on the overall Mid-Late Eocene clastic sequences, outcropping in behind the Lycian nappes, indicate: i) the alluvial fan to shallow marine settings of the Başçeşme Fm in Acıgöl, ii) the Varsakyayla Fm in Burdur and iii) proximal to distal flysch facies trend of the Kayıköy Fm in Isparta. The collected data allow us to hypothesize that the Mid-Late Eocene tectono-sedimentary history was characterized by a terrigenous clastics, probably lying on the constructing tectonic edifice and then deformed and covered by a piggy-back like sequence. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Eocene transgressive in SW Turkey has been probably developed through a progressive migration towards the foreland basin.
The terraces of the Tárkány Basin, located in the SW part of the Bükk Mountains are known since the beginning of the 20th century. Based on field surveys, six morphological levels were delineated and described in 1936. During the later geological mapping surveys, three gravel terraces had been mapped in the basin. Since then, no c...omprehensive morphological mapping has been made in the Tárkány Basin. Our study aimed to validate the results of these early studies using a digital elevation model. We delineated the remnant surfaces of the basin by morphometric and GIS techniques. Then, based on field surveys and former geological maps; we characterised these remnant surfaces, and their area was measured as well. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the surface evolution of the basin and its surroundings.
The level of land consumption for housing and transport contrasts sharply with both the necessity and
the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs of
current and future generations in terms of resource protection and climate change. Owing to the
increasing intensity of soil usage,
natural filter and run-off regulating functions of soils are impaired or even disappeared altogether by
land surfacing. Since such soil functions closely depend on the soil’s biophysical properties, the
decline of water balance functionality caused by urbanisation and increasing imperviousness varies.
In response to the demand to sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly
how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating the urban land use
change and the respective imperviousness on the long-term water balance ought to improve our
general understanding of the water household related impact of urbanisation. Therefore, the aim of
this paper is to assess the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term water
balance over a 130-year trajectory using the example of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid
to evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.
Along its upper course, the Olt River (Romania) flows through several settlements, which are endangered by flooding. The multiannual water flow at Tomești station, the first hydrometric station along the Olt River, is 1.51 m3 /s, but in case of extreme events the river flow reached even 41.8 m3 /s. The aim of this study is to analyze the flood... events along the upper course of the Olt River (section between Tomești and Cârța settlements) by using the HEC-RAS and the HEC-GeoRAS hydrological modeling software programs. The river cross section model showed how the main channel narrowed (characteristic to some locations) which can be considered as one of the causes of a possible overflow.
Depending on the orientation data, the accuracy of the applied terrain models and the field content
of the orthophotos data of different accuracy can be obtained in the course of analysing orthophotos.
Considering the factors influencing accuracy, differences resulted by the application of different elevation
models are studied in this
the magnitude of differences between the co-ordinates of reference points digitized from orthophotos
and that of points measure
During the past decades, urban growth has been accelerating with the massive immigration of population to cities. Urban population in the world was estimated as 2.9 billion in 2000 and predicted to reach 5.0 billion in 2030. Rapid urbanization and population growth have been a common phenomenon, especially in the developing countries such as Ir...an. Rapid population growth, environmental changes and improper land use planning practices in the past decades have resulted in environmental deterioration, haphazard landscape development and stress on the ecosystem structure, housing shortages, insufficient infrastructure, and increasing urban climatological and ecological problems. In this study, urban sprawl assessment was implemented using Shannon entropy and then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted for modeling urban growth. Our case study is Tehran Metropolis, capital of Iran. Landsat imageries acquired in 1988, 1999 and 2010 are used. According to the results of sprawl assessment for this city, this city has experienced sprawl between 1988 to 2010. Dataset include distance to roads, distance to green spaces, distance to developed area, slope, number of urban cells in a 3 by 3 neighborhood, distance to fault and elevation. Relative operating characteristic (ROC) method have been used to evaluate the accuracy and performance of the model. The obtained ROC equal to 0.8366.
Our paper presents a forward looking analytical approach to the territorial development in a region of
the Transylvanian Plain situated in the vicinity of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. We outlined the development of
this region with the means of landscape architecture supported by a comparable assessment. In the age
of Big Data we settled at c
from a limited amount of available as yet loosely related data. The key feature of the employed model is
the ontological traceability of cause and effect. Although technology is available to collect enormous data,
expert knowledge gained by education and professional practice cannot be overlooked. We demonstrate
that this method of location based analysis is capable of delivering value added to established principles
of spatial planning in the age of trustworthy, large volume, heterogeneous data.
A remarkable badland valley is situated near Kazár, NE-Hungary, where rhyolite tuff outcrops as greyish
white cliffs and white barren patches. The landform is shaped by gully and rill erosion processes. We
performed a preliminary state UAS survey and created a digital surface model and ortophotograph. The
flight was operated with manu
The overhanging forests induced overexposed photographs due to the higher contrast with the bare
tuff surface. The multiresolution segmentation method allowed us to classify the ortophotograph and
separate the tuff surface and the vegetation. The applied methods and final datasets in combination with
the subsequent surveys will be used for detecting the recent erosional processes of the Kazár badland