Powerful geothermal energy utilisation requires geoinformatic tools from potential surveying through the designing and setting of geothermal systems to certain operational tasks. However, practical data processing strongly depends on the elaboration of basic data and information, the type of the geothermal energy harvesting system and
...the character of the calculation demonstrated by case studies from East Hungary, in addition the usability of the resulted maps are also presented. Besides their usability for investors these maps could be refined in the location of the development before hydraulic/heat transport modelling.
Ground coupled heat pump systems are suitable for extracting subsurface thermal energy with low environmental impact especially regarding CO2 emission. The efficiency of such systems strongly depends on the temperature of the ambient heat (thus underground substrate). This temperature usually changes unfavourably during operation and efficiency
... becomes lower than the nominal value. Appropriate installation and operation cause lower temperature drop, thus higher efficiency. Consequently, it means lower electricity demand, therefore lower specific CO2 emission, more CO2 saving and lower operation costs. Quantitative analysis with 21 heat extraction models presented in the paper points out that the differences could be significant (up to 30 %), in addition using bivalent mode the environmental impact of the installation or/and operation can be reduced as well, especially using biomass firing as auxiliary heating.
Sustainable thermal water production involves the protection of the used reservoirs, as well as the minimizing of the environmental impact (caused by heat, gas and dissolved solid). Four water extraction models are discussed in which the water and heat demand of the theoretical spa are supplied using different sources. The most environmental fr
...iendly variation contains three wells with different depths of screening. In this case the dissolved gas and solid content became the lowest, as well as the radius of influence based on drawdown calculations. Beyond the environmental impact the owner have to consider other economic aspects, such as the number of wells, the possibility of independence from gas services, which force the owner to choose not the most environment friendly way. Optimizing the various factors, thermal water extraction for medical and wellness purposes could be feasible and appropriate for sustainable operation.