The study of settlement shape, morphology and structure is a classic topic of urban geography. Since the 1960s multiple shape indices have been developed. Urban patterns were then compared with geometric forms or, alternatively their temporal changes were tracked and analysed. In the current study we adapted the landscape shape index (LSI) to a...nalyse the historical shape development of eight Hungarian cities. The LSI is capable to demonstrate the functional and mutual relationship between the developed area and their immediate physical and natural environment. Over the past 230 years the land area of the studied cities has increased manifold for several reasons: on average, an areal increase of 10.4 to 24.5 was observed for the eight settlements, while their perimeter increased by 8.8 to 30.3 times. Simultaneously with their size growth, the studied cities are characterized by an increasingly fragmented and dissected ground plans. Consequently, due to the longer border between the developed areas and the adjacent natural zones, urban areas have become increasingly sensitive to environmental effects over the past century, while mutual ecological and environmental interactions has also considerably increased between the adjoining zones. In general, cities of hilly and low-mountain areas had the highest LSIs, whereas cities located on relatively flat grounds had comparatively low LSIs. We also investigated the rank correlation of the historical change of LSI of the studied settlements. Cities of high positive correlations (> 0.9) were classified into two major categories. Miskolc, Pécs, Szeged and Kecskemét belonged to the group of higher LSIs, whereas Székesfehérvár and Nyíregyháza fell into the class of medium LSIs and the third category included Debrecen and Győr, cities of low (< 0.9) LSIs. Based on the temporal trends of the LSIs, our results provide applicable information for decision makers in order to monitor, manage and track their investments, city management policies and infrastructural development strategies.
Adaptation to climate change demands the optimal and sustainable water management in agriculture, with an inevitable focus on soil moisture conditions. In the current study we developed an ArcGIS 10.4. platform-based application (software) to model spatial and temporal changes in soil moisture in a soy field. Six SENTEK Drill & Drop soil mo...isture sensors were deployed in an experimental field of 4.3 hectares by the contribution of Elcom Ltd. Soil moisture measurement at each location were taken at six depths (5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 cm) in 60-minute intervals. The model is capable to spatially interpolate monitored soil moisture using the technique. The time sequence change of soil moistures can be tracked by a Time Slider for both the 2D and 3D visualization. Soil moisture temporal changes can be visualized in either daily or hourly time intervals, and can be shown as a motion figure. Horizon average, maximum and minimum values of soil moisture data can be identified with the builtin tool of ArcGIS. Soil moisture spatial distribution can be obtained and plotted at any cross sections, whereas an alarm function has also been developed for tension values of 250, 1,000 and 1,500 kPa.
The retention of surface runoff and the preservation of soil moisture are among the most important water-related ecosystem services. In addition to field monitoring, advanced remote sensing techniques have been devised to reveal soil moisture dynamics on agricultural land. In our study we compare two soil moisture indices, TWI and SAVI, in thre...e agricultural areas with different land use types. The SAVI has been found suitable to point out spatial variation on the moisture conditions of the vadose zone.
The hydromorphological properties of rivers and their floodplains receive increased attention both in basic research and water management. A comparison of hydromorphological parameters before and after river regulation (involving floodplain drainage) provides important information for river management, particularly floodplain rehabilitation. Th...e paper assesses a selected reach of the Drava River and the corresponding floodplain utilising two international approaches, the REFORM framework and the Italian Morphological Quality Index.