United States has long been a stepchild of American and education studies alike. For half a century, between 1945/47 and 1989, anything positive about the US hovered in the gray zone between “banned” and “tolerated” in communist Hungary. Therefore, our image of American tertiary education relies too heavily on its media representations,... which is a clearly distorted mirror. In this paper a short look at the current numbers is followed by a historical overview of the evolution of higher education since the colonial period, a cursory look at how Hungarians saw these developments until 1945, and a review of the current debates. It concludes with a personal take on both higher education and its role in the current presidential election campaign by the author.
The Hungarian Rectors’ Conference was established in 1988 by the rectors of 19 universities in the spirit of intensifying self-organization and representation of the interests of higher education. HRC undertook and played a decisive role in the change of our higher education, in consolidating its autonomy and social role, as well as in th...e preparation and implementation of the first Higher Education Act. The framework of its operation, the impact and effectiveness of its activities were further shaped partly by its own aspirations and partly by the frameworks provided or limited by the current government. Recently, the role and weight of HRC both in the radically modified domestic and the changing authoritative international higher education space has sharply decreased, although its active role would be important for our institutions, science and society: the voice of universities must be heard and recognized everywhere.
The Cultural Policy of Kuno Klebelsberg and the Higher Education. The study presents the higher education policy of one of the best known and succesful Hungarian Minister of Religion and Education (1922–1931) Kuno Klebelsberg (1875–1932). As a politician of a state dismembered to one third of her original size-a consequence of the war loss...and the Trianon peace treaty-he became a minister in miserable economic circumstances. With the contribution of him the stabilization of so-called refugee universities (from Kolozsvár and Pozsony to Budapest and then to Szeged  and to Pécs , the Academy of Minery and Forestry from Selmecbánya to Sopron [1918–1919]) could succesfuly be managed. Because of his conservative-liberal political attitude he tried to ease the effects of the so-called Numerus clausus Acts of 1920 which made the university entrance for Jewish Hungarians extremely serious. In 1928 he achieved the modification of that regulation. Instead of Budapest he supported the development of universities of Debrecen, Szeged and Pécs as a consequence of his well-grounded education policy based on decentralization. With his higher education policy he made great contribution to preserve the pre Great War Hungarian higher educational capacity in a dismembered Hungary lost 60% of her original population.
From Elite Higher Educational Systems to Mass Education (Higher Education in France 1953– 990). The french university sytsem is unique in Europe. It is divided between public and private higher educational sectors. This paper aims to identify tensions and difficulties arised by the higher educational expansion... in the french higher educational system.It focuses specifically on the increase in the number of the student and the trends of the expansion after the second world war up to 1990. The introduction of the Bologna system was followed by a large wave of national and foreign students willing to enroll French universities. The significant rise in the number of students led to manifold infrastructural problems. However, the transition from the elit to the mass education not only rised problems but also generated solutions. Seen in this light and based on the rate of enrollment and gender data this study intends to highlight techniques of problem solving in higher educational setting.
The History of Hungarian Agricultural Vocational Education until 1945, with a special Emphasis on the Agricultural Higher Education of Debrecen. The study mainly provides an overview on the organizational history of educational institutions of the Hungarian agricultural vocational education. It gives a perspective on the development of diff...erent types of schools from the lowest level of education, through secondary education to the institutions of the highest level, outlining the economic and social-historical aspects, also with respect to the relevant legislation. A special attention is paid by the author to the history of the agricultural higher education of Debrecen until 1945.
In the history of domestic vocational education in agriculture, the year 2018 has recorded itself onto the pages of history’s golden book with two significant anniversaries. Mosonmagyarovar celebrated the bicentenary of its birth and Debrecen celebrated its existence of a century and a half. These two higher educatio...n institutions were called to life by different reasons. While Ovar opened its gates to a private initiative, in Debrecen the local farmer society was the driving force with the binding precondition to which was connected tightly to have the mother tongue education accepted by the Viennese court. The time proved afterwards that the education in Hungarian language did not go to the detriment of expertise at none of the institutions. It must be acknowledged that in the field of vocational training, Magyarovar was the one which gave the first large faculty of teachers but soon Debrecen outgrew itself to the acropolis of vocational training too. The Ministry of Agriculture solved the incidental differences of standards by switching teachers. Owing to this, some professor-individualities had the chance to teach at both places. In our compilation – as a sample – we selected a few meaningful personalities with great authority who are claimed to have by both university faculties.
POSSIBILITIES OF SOCIAL MOBILITY IN THE HIGHER ADUCATION SYSTEM OF THE HORTY-ERA. he living circumstances of academic students were always determined by the prosperity of their parents. he income of parents in prestigous positions with higher qualiications provided for the education of their children, in an era wh...en high expenses deined education as a privilege for a narrow social strata. By the beginning of the 20th century, the democratization of the higher education, the apperance of women and students from lower social strata at the universities had become an international tendency. he increasing number of students in Hungary was also due to the WWI. As students came from various social backgrounds, they received an opportunity to socially rise through education. he study aims at identifying the processes behind the social mobility of academic students between the two WWs.
The Political Involvement of the University- and Academic Youth between 1830 and 1880. The institutional network of the higher education in Hungary was very diverse on the turn of the 18th and 19th century and in the first part of the 19th century. In the multi-national and multi-confessional country, 88 institutions provided higher than medium... level education. Most of these institutions were related to the historical denomination but besides them several state higher educational institutions existed. We reported about the student movements of these schools in this paper. In the first part of the 19th century the Holy Alliance’s system prohibited the foundation of student movements, although, in most of the institutions, reading circles and literature student associations were formed in which the leaders of the future national movements played an important role. The period of the revolution and the fight for freedom of 1848–1849 was significant regarding the student movements as well, because at most universities the studentry listed their requests aiming not only the reform of student life but the social changes as well. After the defeat of the freedom fight it was not possible to form student associations for ten years. But from the 1860s the battle for the national language of higher education marked the Hungarian youth movements. After the Austro- Hungarian Compromise, the studentry’s activity decreased, although they spoke in some political questions. For example, in 1867–1877, during the time of the Russian-Turkish war, the students in Pest and Cluj- Napoca stood against the Russians and not the Turks. This action produced that the university youth got back 36 valuable medieval codices from the Turks which were stolen in 1526 from the Royal Library in Buda.
University Studies of Professors at the evangelical Colleg of Presov up to 19th century. Evangelical College in Presov, as one of the most important evangelical schools in Hungary, considered the high quality education of its teachers to be very important since its establishment, and as a rule, the positions of professors<.../em> were occupied by the graduates of German universities. Before establishment of the College, the Town Council likewise had seen to it that the humanistic „gymnasium” had been lead by rectors with high quality university education. This paper aims at creating a portrait of studies of professors at Evangelical College in Presov, and at its predecessor – the Municipal Lutheran Gymnasium over a period of three centuries, from the half of the 16 th to the half of the 19 th centuries whereby the data about its rectors, conrecors and subrectors were used as a source. In the period of these three centuries 111 Presov Evangelical rectors, conrectors and subrectors acquired their education at 26 universities or colleges. Most of them, 34, studied at Wittenberg (30%), followed by Jena (11), Tübingen (7), Thorn (6), Halle (4), Vienna (4) and Frankfurt (4). Three of them graduated from the University in Altdorf, two in Greifswald and the Reformed College in Sarospatak and by one in Rostock, Prague, Gdansk, Graz, Strassburg, Helmstädt, Erfurt, Giessen, Erlangen, Rinteln, Paris, Vratislav, Dresden and Göttingen. Other 16 professors studied at unknown places, eventually did not obtained higher education. 20 professors obtained their education at more than one university or college, most of them (7) in the first period of existence of the College (1667–1711), and least of them (2) in the first half of the 19 th century.
The unsigned Founding Charter. The plan of the Economic Faculty of Budapest. The adventurous history of the foundation of the Economic Faculty of Budapest dates back to the middle of the 19th century.
This writing presents the history of the events which led to the foundation of the university from the beginning of the 20th century. In 1918,
missing to realize the plan. The study specifies longer jr. Béla Erődi-Harrach’s writing ’University of Economics’, which was also the base for the experiment of 1918 and the foundation of 1920. Altough it has
been remained unknown in literature.
FROM THE HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL HIGHER EDUCATION. his paper connects the two periods and places of Hungarian agricultural higher education. he link is the scientiic work of Árpád Hensch – professor of Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Mosonmagyaróvár at the end of the 19th century – which has a signiicant<.../em> efect on the Hungarian economic higher education even nowadays. his signiicance is proven by the eforts since the 1960s in Debrecen evolved on the Department of Business Economics in the former University of Agricultural Sciences.
The book provides an in-depth analysis of the main trends and methodologies by which the 21st century higher education should be reorganized, and of the practices, approaches and methods which should be radically rethought. The authors give a detailed description of the changes and trends that require the application of a radically new approach... to higher education.
Prešov – Moving of the Lutheran Law School to Miskolc in the academic year 1918/19. The Law School in Prešov was (re)established in 1862 and became a very important educational centre for Upper
Hungarian families. During the WW I the education was frequently disturbed by garrisoned military troops, and the substitution of fighting profes
Trianon there were plans to move the school to Miskolc, but after the Czechoslovakian occupation of Prešov (December 1918) and the forbidding of the education in the Law School, the school moved in March 2019
to Miskolc and started the education in the fall of 1919.
Proposal for the Introduction of the Trimester System – Proposal by Faculty of Law of the University of Debrecen to Earl János Zichy, Minister of Religion and Public Education. The Faculty of Law of the University of Debrecen in the last period of the World War I. made a proposal in order to divide the school year to three semester. It was a... strange source of the history of the Hungarian higher education. Based on this document can be cognizable the real life and thinking of the students of the university who came back from the war and of the professors who met with them the first time. The trimestrial system of the higher education was favoured by the students too, but it wasn’t able to come to real because the collapse of the Monarchy.
DR. KRASSAI LOVAG KERPELY KÁLMÁN (1864–1940) PIONEER OF THE MODERNISATION OF HUNGARIAN CROP PRODUCTION. Agriculture in Hungary – more speciically crop production – dates back to the Roman 17th century. Hungarian agriculture is rooted in Western European agriculture. Its development was started in the Age o...f Enlightenment, during which the conditions of the modernisation of agriculture were established in the Carpathian basin in the 18th–19th century. Social transformation, the reorganisation of possessions and the establishment of the system of agricultural higher education made it possible to modernise the agricultural sector. In the 1800s, agricultural higher education institutes were esablished in Keszthely and
Magyaróvár under modest circumstances. In 1867, a state-run institution was established in Debrecen where education and research were launched with well prepared teachers who had international knowledge. At the end of the century, Kerpely Kálmán started to work in Debrecen and crop production research was launched with the central topic of analysing the harmonious correlations of the nutrient and water supply of the produced crops. he hundred-year-old results and establishments of this research direction provide a basis for the development activity of subsequent years and the research of its basic correlations. hese scientiic activities are still timely today.
The Debrecen Memo of an Extrordinary Meeting Convened at the Ministry of Religion and Public Education on April 11–12, 1944. In March, 1944, the German military occupation of Hungary plunged the country into a difficult situation, affecting among other things the Ministry of Religion and Public Education respons...ible for the institutions of higher education. Minister Jenő Szinyei Merse convened a twoday meeting for April 11 and 12, for the purposes of analysing the situation that evolved and for making
the required decisions. The source material registers the proceedings of this meeting. President János Bognár of Debrecen’s István Tisza University probably had the text copied immediately after he had returned from the capital. The memo consists of twenty-five long and short items and these are about taking sundry measures, mainly pertaining to the simplification of administration for the purposes of an early closure of the academic year and a more severe interpretation of the Jewish laws.
The influence of the economic crisis to the system of surcharges was so deep, that the Ministry of Religion and Public Education was forced to make a new surcharge from the first semester of the 1931/32. year. This fee must be paid by every student of the university at the beginning of every semester. The state of the Hungarian government’s b...udget was so critical, that three years later must be made another maintenance surcharge which was paid based on the measure of the tuition fee exemption. From the first semester of the 1934/35. year every student had to pay this charge in the rate of their tution fee. All these maintenance surcharges were the part of the Hungarian higher education and the part of the surcharges system of the István Tisza University of Debrecen till the end of the first semester of the 1940/41. year.
From a Protestant Law Student a Catholic Professor of Law in Linz (Johann Ferdinand Behamb). From among the law writers of Hungarian origin in the 17th century, Johann Ferdinand Behamb from Bratislava emerges regarding both his efficiency and his awareness. After his recatholisation he became a law educator in Linz... serving the Upper Austrian Orders. The paper tries to reconstruct Behamb’s education and teaching activity, also paying attention to a special type of school of higher education (Landschaftschule).
The higher education in Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) started in the XVIII century. Maria Terézia founded the first Hungarian University with a Medical Faculty in 1769, and the idea to found a second one emerged soon.
MEMORANDUM FOR THE NECESSITY OF THE UNIVERSITY ARCHIVE: EXTRACTS FROM THE PRESENTATIONS AT THE CONFERENCES OF THE ASSOCIATION OF THE HUNGARIAN HIGHER EDUCATION ARCHIVES (2008–2012). he author reported on the development of the documents during the history of the University of Debrecen at several conferences, emp...hasizing the fact that among all the Hungarian higher education institutions, the one in Debrecen has no separate archive. After a short retrospect, the present status of the document management at the University of Debrecen is introduced showing an odd picture of the situation since the doscument collections, although following the rules of the archive maintenance, are still scattered in separate locations. Parts of the collectionscan be found in the Hajdú-Bihar County Archive, in the Central Archive and in the University Library. he review written in favour of a uniied archive introduces the main subject units of the collections.
The Founding Experiments of New Technical Universities in the first Decade of the 20th Century. The almost-opened Technical University in Timisoara. Due to the need for industrial development in
the era of dualism and the overcrowding of the Royal Joseph Technical University, the founding of the second Hungarian technical university became o
the 20th century. The professional public, the Royal Joseph Technical University and the government both imagined the establishment of the institution in Timisoara which was the industrial-commercial center of
Southern Land. They took into consideration economic, educational and national aspects as well. The concrete plans were completed by 1917, but due to historical events, the institution was founded only
in the autumn of 1920 as a Romanian Politechnic. In addition to Timisoara, Košice was the planned seat of the third Hungarian technical university, but the preparations were not as far away as in Timisoara.
SCREENING PROCEDURES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN (1945–46). After the end of the World War II, at the beginning of the rebuilding of Hungary, the irst aim of the new government was the cleaning of the social and political life and the removal of the followers of the former political systems from the public ofices. ...>So in the irst half of 1945, according to the orders and laws of the Provisory Government, People’s Tribunals and political screening committees were formed in every town with the membership of the ive so-called democratic parties (Communist Party, Social Democrat Party, National Peasants’ Party, Bourgeoisdemocrat Party, Small-holders’ Party). It was also necessary to screen the employees of the public institutions, especially the higher education because the “reactionary” and the extreme right ideologies were very strong in these middle-class circles, and many of them were the member of the Hungarian Nazi parties (the Arrow- Cross Movements) and other right radical social associations (Turul Association, Volksbund etc.). his paper presents the working, the judgement and the mistakes of the screening committee of the employees of the University of Debrecen. his committee was formed in May 1945 and inished its work in the end of January
1946. In this short period the committee examined near 700 cases, but only 49 employees (professors, lectors, secretaries, other oicers, etc.) were condemned. he analyses of the working of the screening committee at University of Debrecen expands with new facts the image created about the spirit of the age, the higher education and the society of Hungary in the irst years after the World War II.
In the fall of 1918 there were 23 state universities in Hungary. After three month 10 among them were disannexed.
Missing conditions to the start of a new higher education institution.
The Soulsearching of Hungarian Higher Education Students in the 1930s and 1940s. The study primarily focuses on the influential role of army brotherhood societies between the two world wars. The author outlines the ideological background and intellectual pursuit behind the movement. These brotherhood societies were so powerful, that in the 1930...s and 1940s part of their activities manifested outside of the higher education environment. The societies actively engaged in politics, as much so, that their aim was to be part of the development of laws and the constitution. The author discusses the ambitions of both the radical right and the somewhat left wing youth establishments.