The ’Great War’s Influence on the Hungarian Higher Education and Youth. The study examines the different effects that occurred as a consequence of the First World War, such as the reduction of student numbers due to enlisting the army, the society’s reaction to the increased number of women and Jewish students, the reduced activity of uni...versity societies, the loss of territory due to war, the continuous inflation, and the radical right wing’s reaction to the lack of stability of the Hungarian youth. These consequences resulted in the increased popularity of the so called association of army brotherhood. To sum up, the author concludes that the Hungarian higher education wasn’t well prepared for the war, which in turn resulted in a number of negative consequences in the following decades.
The Memorandum of Studentsts againstst the “Mutilation” of the University of Debrecen (1933).Between the two world wars, the Great Depression made a significant impact on higher education in Hungary. At the beginning of 1930s, many articles were published in the national and local press about the plans of the government in connection wi...th the handling of the crisis. These rumours were about the “mutilation” of the universities (closing or merging of the faculties, reduction of the estimation). As in the other university towns, substantial social and political protest began in Debrecen against these plans. Besides the parties, the associations and the Calvinist Church, the university students sent a memorandum to the leaders of the University, the town and the government. This paper includes this document of protest and presents the main (historical, judicial and economic) reasons against the “mutilation.”
Jenő Darkó, Professor of Bizantinology, the Rector Magnificus of the Hungarian Royal István Tisza University of Debrecen during the Academic Year 1930/31. Jenő Darkó (1880–1940), Professor of Byzantinology and the member of the Hungarian Academy of Arts and Sciences was the Rector of the Hungarian Royal Ist...ván Tisza University of Debrecen in the 1928–1929 academic year. Being an appointed Professor of the Theological Academy of Debrecen he was proposed a full professorship at the newly found University of Debrecen in 1912 since the Theological academy was the forrunner of the Universtiy of Debrecen. Between 1918–1919 he was an appointed Dean of the School of Arts . After finishing his time in office, he was offered the opportunity to fulfilling repeatedly this position in 1938–1939.) Under his rectorship, the university witnessed unprecedented development in professional life and infrastructure. Within this framework new departments were established (botany, zoology, mineral and earth sciences, mathematics), the university library experinced significant advancement and additionally Professor Darkó organized courses to disseminate results in arts and sciences. The professors of the university were regularly invited to international conferences and the younger faculty members were gained international scholarships. The construction of the observatory together with the main building was underway, as well as the realization of the elegant on-campus professors' villas were agreed upon. The socially sensitive rector encouraged the establishment of student housing, and student support program to enable students in need. He was especially keen ont he idea to engage young people from Transilvania soon after World War I. Furthermore he succeeded in managing the extreme anti-Semitic manifestations of certain student groups in autumn 1928.
SCREENING PROCEDURES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN (1945–46). After the end of the World War II, at the beginning of the rebuilding of Hungary, the irst aim of the new government was the cleaning of the social and political life and the removal of the followers of the former political systems from the public ofices. ...>So in the irst half of 1945, according to the orders and laws of the Provisory Government, People’s Tribunals and political screening committees were formed in every town with the membership of the ive so-called democratic parties (Communist Party, Social Democrat Party, National Peasants’ Party, Bourgeoisdemocrat Party, Small-holders’ Party). It was also necessary to screen the employees of the public institutions, especially the higher education because the “reactionary” and the extreme right ideologies were very strong in these middle-class circles, and many of them were the member of the Hungarian Nazi parties (the Arrow- Cross Movements) and other right radical social associations (Turul Association, Volksbund etc.). his paper presents the working, the judgement and the mistakes of the screening committee of the employees of the University of Debrecen. his committee was formed in May 1945 and inished its work in the end of January
1946. In this short period the committee examined near 700 cases, but only 49 employees (professors, lectors, secretaries, other oicers, etc.) were condemned. he analyses of the working of the screening committee at University of Debrecen expands with new facts the image created about the spirit of the age, the higher education and the society of Hungary in the irst years after the World War II.
Tensions Involving the Construction of the University Church in 1938. Next to the Main Building of the University of Debrecen stands a Protestant church which for long years in the past accommodated the periodical holdings of the university’s Main Library. However, by now much of the church’s early history has been forgotten. The study...demonstrates that the university’s management supported the view, as early as the very beginning of the 1920s, that for a fundamentally Protestant institution of higher education the government authorities should provide a church of its own. This project was delayed by the world economic crisis of 1929 and the fact that the construction of the Main Building itself of the university was not completed until 1932/1933. The management of the university, the Protestant Diocese of the Trans-Tisza District and the Ministry of Religion and Public Education jointly invited tenders for the construction of the building, the winner of which was a contructor of Jewish background. This decision—reflecting the spirit of the age—elicited aversion from right-wing student organizations. Through presenting the standpoints concerning this event, the study provides a graphic description of the relevant contemporaneous attitudes.