Domestic Violence and its Impact upon Reproductive Health during Corona Virus Pandemic among Women Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad City - Iraq

Violence is widespread, affects women of all cultures globally, breeds in silence, it is an important cause of physical, psychological reproductive health problems.
A cross sectional design was utilized to assess the types domestic violence and it's impacts of upon reproductive health during corona virus pandemic among women attending primary health care centers in Baghdad City - Iraq
A non-probability sample of (150) women who expose to violence was selected during the period from 26th Jun to 18th Mar. 2021. Data was collected by filling out the questionnaire, and the validity and reliability were determined through the pilot study, and descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used in analyzing the data.
The results of the study revealed that most of the study sample were subjected to hitting (86%) and slapping (83%) during their daily lives, controlling their behavior (90%) and abuse or the use of force during sexual relations (75%), while preventing them from using some social networking sites(84%). According to the R/S, the result was psychosocial violence was high level, and physical and electronic violence was medium level, while sexual violence was low level, The study finding indicated that all study samples suffer from at least one impact of domestic violence on them during childbearing age, but most of the study sample considered psychosocial violence to be the most influential on their lives than others. The study recommends that women will be screened for any type of domestic violence during childbearing age. Incorporating domestic violence topics into education curricula, using social media, the availability of health services, and supporting the strengthening of cooperation between social agencies, justice and the police through law enforcement and research to promote and protect women's rights.

Attitudes of Roma adults towards the care of their elderly relatives

Caring for the elderly is a challenge for any society even if it is a family or institution related issue (Bánlaki 2006). Numerous researches on the care of the elderly have been published, which help to make the care of the elderly as effective as possible (Djellal, Gallouj 2006). Within the framework of our research, we undertook to examine the attitudes (Arlotti, Aguilar-Hendrickson 2017) and experiences of the Roma towards elderly care.
Our aim was to explore the opinions of adult Roma people on the topic, as well as to identify possible cultural peculiarities in this issue (Hajime et al 2006; Da Roit 2010; Kehusmaa et al. 2013; Szabóné 2018).

We have selected Roma adult people living in Budapest as our target group, most of them perform manual labour, who in the near future are likely to face the issue of caring for their elderly relatives or are already facing it in the capital. We have chosen this target group because there is a wide range of social services in the capital, and this gives us an insight into the confidence or lack of confidence in the social care system. The situation of the Roma elderly in the Hungarian social context is discussed with a nuanced approach based on Roma studies. The opinions and thoughts of 20 Roma adults are highlighted in our presentation, with whom we interviewed. We compiled a semi-structured set of questions for the target group. We tried to capture the attitude of the Roma towards elderly care along different dimensions (Allport, Lindzey 1960; Örkény, Vári 2009): individual responsibility (Nárai 2019) patterns of the family (Bánlaky 2001), financial and other resources (Bourdieu 1999) - assistance, trust in the social care system, readiness for elderly care (Heimlich 2008). Our research was carried out in November 2021 in compliance with the measures associated witht he COVID-19 situation. The interviews took 40-75 minutes long on average per person.
We compare international trends within formation on elderly care in Hungary and data on the health status of elderly Roma in Hungary (Kodner, 2006).

The uniqueness of our research lies in the fact that we present the strategies of the Roma related to care in the Hungarian social reality, we identify practical problems and challenges, which can even be a breeding ground for future social policy measures (Schwiter et al. 2015). Poverty among the Roma, as well as discrimination and lower life expectancy compared to non-Roma (KSH, 2015) all contribute to the decision-making of Roma adults regarding the care of their elderly relatives, which is confirmed by the answers found in the interviews and the possibilities and strategies formed by the elderly care system (Kovács 2006). Our results showed that access to various social benefits, such as home help and public health care among others is affected during elderly care, and also has a key role to play, but also information among the Roma. In addition to trust in the social care system, financial means or lack of the influence coping strategies for elderly care. The results obtained can be used even for prevention projects aimed at local health preservation, or for any program aimed at improving the health status of the Roma.

Allport, G. W., Vernon, P. E., Lindzey, G. A. (1960): A study of values, 3rd ed., Boston, Houghton.Mifflin.
Barbara Da Roit (2010): Strategies of Care. Changing Elderly Care in Italy and the Netherlands. Care and Welfare
Bánlaky Pál (2001): Családszociológia. Wesley János Lelkészképző Főiskola, Budapest.
Bánlaky Pál (2006): A család belső működése – A családon belüli kapcsolatok dinamikája. In: Czibere Ibolya (szek.) (2006): Családszociológia szöveggyűjtemény. Debrecen.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1999): Gazdasági tőke, kulturális tőke, társadalmi tőke. In: Angelusz Róbert (szerk.): A társadalmi rétegződés komponensei. Budapest, Új Mandátum Könyvkiadó, 156-177.
Faridah Djellal, Faïz Gallouj (2006): Innovation in care services for the elderly. The Service Industries Journal. Volume 26, 2006 - Issue 3
Hajime Orimo,Hideki Ito,Takao Suzuki,Atsushi Araki,Takayuki Hosoi, Motoji Sawabe (2006): Reviewing the definition of “elderly”. Geriatrics Gerontology, Volume 6, Issue 3 149-158.
Helmich K. (2008): A generativitás fogalma és a nemzedékek egymásrahatása. In: Gyáni G., Láng M. (szerk.): Generációk a történelemben. Hajnal István Kör – Társadalomtörténeti Egyesülete és a Nyíregyházi Főiskola Gazdasági Társadalomtudományi Kara, Nyíregyháza (2008) 115-120.
Karin Schwiter, Christian Berndt, Jasmine Truong (2015): Neoliberal austerity and the marketisation of elderly care. Social & Cultural Geography Volume 19, 2018 - Issue 3: Placing care in times of austerity
Kodner, D., and C. Spreeuwenberg. 2002. “Integrated Care: Meaning, Logic, Applications and
Implications – A Discussion Paper.” International Journal of Integrated Care Vol. 2 (October-December).
Kovács Éva (2006): Mari ésaz ő „cigánysága” – avagy a narratíva helye és ereje az etnicitás kutatásában. Tabula, 2006 9 (I):41-52.
KSH Statisztikai Tükör (2015). A hazai nemzetiségek demográgiai jellemzői. (Utolsó letöltés ideje: 2021. 11. 03.)
Marco Arlotti, Manuel Aguilar-Hendrickson (2017): The vicious layering of multilevel governance in Southern Europe: The case of elderly care in Italy and Spain. Social Policy Administration, Volume52, Issue3, May 2018, 646-661.
Margaret McAdam (2008): Frameworks of Integrated Care for the Elderly: A Systematic Review. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
Nárai Márta (2019): A lokális társadalmi szerepvállalás, felelősségvállalás szereplői – egyesületek, alapítványok a helyi közösségek/helyi társadalom szolgálatában, Ünnepi tanulmánykötet a 70 éves Gáspár Mátyás tiszteletére, Magánkiadás, 151-161.
Örkény Antal – Vári István: Szempontok és kérdőjelek a magyarországi roma kisebbség tanulmányozásához. Fundamentum, 2009. 2. szám, 5-15.
Sari Kehusmaa, Ilona Autti-Rämö, Hans Helenius, Pekka Rissanen (2013): Does informal care reduce public care expenditure on elderly care? Estimates based on Finland’s Age Study. BMC Health Services Research 13, 317.
Szabóné dr. Kármán Judit (2018): A magyarországi cigány/roma népesség kulturantropológiai és orvosantropológiai megközelítésben. Romológiai füzetek 2. DRHE, Debrecen, 5-76.

COVID-19, lockdown, elderly. Experiences of the follow up research among active older adults 2020-2021.

Introduction, aims:
The COVID-19 pandemic caused invaluable harms on the World during last two years. Among all economic and societal consequences the negative effects for elderly people was also apparent. Researches - among others - focused on the age related inequalities for accessing and using services, economic disadvantages, the decline of psychical, physical and mental conditions, reduced quality of life, increased level of loneliness, stress and depression, such as the increase and new faces of ageism.
This research focused on the individual and organizational consequences of COVID – 19 pandemic and the effects of the state interventions followed by. The target group were identified as active seniors who have leading positions in different local and regional senior’s associations. These people were affected individually as a member of the age group and as an experts with organizational responsibilities as well.

Research method:
We chose a qualitative follow up (longitudinal) research method that was committed by semi structured phone interviews, recorded and anonymised. The time of the two data record focused and followed the main Hungarian waves of the pandemic: May – June in 2020 and June – July in 2021. Sample were collected from all districts of Hungary (n=42).

Main research topics were:
- The situation of the older adults (experiences about the local older people, daily life, problems, issues, social connections)
- The life in the organization (activities, new initiatives, problems, issues)
- Individual experiences (fears, daily life, social connections, shopping habits, use of ICT, vaccination).

We found significant differences on the personal life situation and the perception of pandemic and related interventions during the two waves. Pandemic situation may influenced these results. The age related “stay at home campaign” made more difficulties for the older people during the first wave, meanwhile related interventions weren’t so strict during the second wave by introducing shopping timeline for older people and night curfew for all in the late nights. Even first wave did not cause such harm like the second one in Hungary.
During the first wave we found older people as a rule following citizens. They followed all the restrictions and regulations strictly. Life situations mainly were determined by the living conditions, that is means the ones who lived in the countryside mainly a house with garden experienced less negative effects than those, who lived in the housing estate area (first wave mainly fall on March – May).
Older people reported increased importance of the local authorities. With the lack of central supporting interventions, local authorities played main role for local support, care and security. If the local government took care of older people they felt safety. Less interventions and coordination made older people insecured.
The second wave made new situations for people. Older adults became one of the first target groups in vaccination and people started to cope with the pandemic.
Older adults became more critical with governmental interventions.
Critics focussed on the
- pandemic related communication, the vaccination (older people mainly got Shinofarm vaccine that was not accepted in the EU at that time),
- difficulties with the availability of health services, and
- they experienced increased economic problems.
The life in the organization: during the first wave we found frozen life of the seniors organization, cancelled and delayed programmes. Some initiatives were also reported. People preferred to keep contact via phone instead of using another ICT tools. Some of the answerer worried about the community life, how they can restart after the pandemic, others preferred the forthcoming chance for personal meetings.
Seniors organisations may play an important role of the senior’s life by organizing free time and social activities, advocacy, and many other aspects of active ageing. As we made a first extract of this research further analyse will focus more on the good examples and new initiatives on the social, community and organizational levels.

Action for smart healthy age-friendly environments

Smart, adaptable and inclusive solutions can help improve and support independent life throughout the course of life, regardless of age, gender, disabilities, cultural differences and personal choices.
A holistic approach that optimizes social and physical environments, supported by digital tools and services, allows to provide better health and social care, promoting not only independent living, but also equity and active participation in society. This approach follows the United Nations' line-up, with the Sustainable Development Goals (in particular Objectives 3 and 11), stating that sustainable environments for all ages represent the basis for ensuring a better future for the entire population.
The challenges of different sectors, such as ICT, the building industry and urban planning and the health and social care, as well as those of citizens and their communities are interlinked. Responding to these challenges will foster awareness and support for the creation and implementation of smart, healthy and inclusive environments for present and future generations.
From this insight, a new concept was developed and well received: Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE). The by the EC approved Thematic Network of 2018 evolved into a Stakeholders Network of about 170 organisations and it is represented in several European projects and networks. COST Action NET4Age-Friendly brings together over 320 researchers from 46 countries. Capacity building to support the implementation of SHAFE is present in Erasmus+ projects.

The presentation will give an overview of relevant development and insights to support the building of smart, inclusive societies.

Health challenges of the elderly: a comparative study of the need for health social workers in Nigeria and Bangladesh

The established fact is that the population with the highest consumer of healthcare services is the elderly because of the increasing demand for adaptive health services accessible to the elderly. As the elderly continue to age, there is a decline in the health condition, developed societies have explored and employed several multidisciplinary approaches to the care of the elderly. The focus is on social work as a profession.

How can telemental health help reduce the loneliness and isolation of the elderly?

The goal of the paper is to draw attention to the importance of telemental health and how it can contribute to reducing the loneliness and isolation of the elderly, by reviewing the literature. The author briefly presents how the use of digital technology has contributed to the social and mental health care of the elderly during the coronavirus epidemic, and what changes have taken place. The study concludes with recommendations for the use of ICT by social workers and the development of telemental health services for the elderly.

Idősgondozás az ellátórendszeren kívül: A családi gondozók kihívásai

A tartós gondozási rendszer túlterheltsége miatt egyre fontosabb a családi gondozók szerepe az idősellátásban. A gondozás felvállalása azonban jelentős megterheltséggel jár, melynek számos negatív következménye lehet a családi gondozók családi élete, munkavállalása, testi-lelki egészsége tekintetében. A jelenlegi hazai ellátórendszer kizárólag a gondozottak szükségleteire fókuszál, a családi gondozók támogatására még nincsenek szolgáltatások. Tanulmányunkban 10, családi gondozóval készített mélyinterjú tükrében ismertetjük legfontosabb nehézségeiket.

Decade of Healthy Aging 2020-2030: international and local arctic context

Healthy aging has become an important policy issue at all levels of the society. The key international document is the World Health Organization’s (WHO) plan for a Decade of Healthy Ageing 2020–2030 which is the 2nd action plan of the WHO ‘s Global strategy on aging and health [1]. The Plan consists of 10 years of concerted, catalytic, sustained collaboration to improve the lives of older people, their families, and their communities. Older people themselves are at the core of this plan, and it brings together a variety of actors: governments, civil society, international agencies, professionals, media, and the private sector. The Plan also notes that healthy aging is not only a healthcare issue but also needs to engage many other sectors.