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Community development role of renewable energy projects
Published August 21, 2020
158-167

The spread of utilization of renewable energy resources is primarily motivated by objectives of energy policy and climate protection. However the rural and community development role of the new investments had got a greater significance in the past years. In the last years or decades the different renewable energy sectors became an important ob...jective of regional policy. In parallel with these changes the renewable energy sources aroused the interest of potential investors. The low population density and relative richness of natural resources in rural areas provide favourable conditions for location of these investments. On the base of local economic development aspects was designated as positive effects that the investments utilize the internal resources of these regions. However in practice it raises different significant questions. What is the role of local financial resources, professional skills and sufficient number of customers in renewable energy investments? We cannot imagine authentic and successful rural development projects without considering the interests and participation of local communities. Our research focuses on requirements of prosperous and long-term sustainable renewable energy based community development solutions following Hungarian and European examples.

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Tourism Competencies Development – Contradictious Perceptions of Stakeholders
Published August 6, 2020
126-141

Tourism and hospitality sector has an important role in the national economy as it has high  labour intensity, generates foreign currency income and improves the local economy by multiplier effect. Tourism labour market employs a wide range of employees from non-qualified to highqualified people. Tourism tertiary educators in Hungary conti...nue their operation by national-level legislation, and accreditation and students who complete tourism courses (should) be capable of professional occupation. The post-Bologna system offered more opportunities in tourism and hospitality education; two distinguished courses were available on the educational market to educate hospitality or tourism experts. After 2006, by launching Bologna system, institutions are allowed to commence just one, Tourism and Catering bachelor programme. A questionnairebased survey was conducted among graduating bachelor students with tourism and catering major, tutors teaching tourism and catering students and actors of tourism market, who going to be the employers of tourism graduates. The main aim of the research was to explore the personal or organizational expectations of stakeholders for professional competence development as a result of tourism and catering bachelor-level education. The bust majority of students stated that their primary aim is to gain professional competencies in tourism and hospitality to be able to fulfil managerial positions or to continue their studies on master-level. Although generic competences as communication skills in foreign languages, social sensitivity, problem solving or creativity have salient influence on job performance, students did not believe that they would be
essential. However, these factors were thought to be the most crucial by tutors and tourism service providers despite the fact that generic skill development is not in focus in tourism and catering bachelor-level education in Hungary. Not just the educational institutions but tourism companies providing work placement for students were considered to be an appropriate basis for competencies development that raised the question of monitoring and assessment. The findings can be profitable for all stakeholder group or policy decision makers in bachelor-level curriculum development. 

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Skills related to EU Projects
Published August 21, 2020
113-119

Our country with its accesion to the European Union in 2004 became eligble to use EU funds for its national developments. More than 7,8 billion Ft had already arrived in Hungary during 2007- 2013. The allocation and the use of EU funds represent a unique and never returning oppurtunity but also a great responsability for Hungary. While infrastr...uctural projects (e.g roads, urban rehabilitation, fulfillment of derogation obligations) has dominated the 2004-2006 and 2007-2013 periods, the Széchenyi 2020 National Development Programme focuses mainly on economical development, 60% of the 8 200 billion Ft allocated EU funds will serve the cause of reviving and boosting the economic growth. Besides this, environmental protection, employement, innovation and the knowledge economy will represent also main focuses for the use of EU funds in Hungary. Where ever we look we see the the multitude of results of EU funded infrastructural, human, and research projects. In the 2014-2020 period even young professionals graduating from Szolnok College will be able to become potencial applicants for EU funds. During the course „Projects, from application to materialization” iniciated within the Bethlen István Specialized College
students were able to get acquainted with the basics of project writing, project terminology and project management.

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ASSESSMENT AND IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT SUBSIDIES IN THE SOUTHERN PLAIN REGION
Published November 15, 2020

The change of The change of regime resulted in significant changes in the life of the Hungarian rural areas; while the rural income of Hungary used to be world-class, after the change of regime it became incredibly low. Accession to the European Union and the European rural policy opened new aspects for rural areas and the people living the...re. The study presents the sociodemographic and farming characteristics of families receiving EU subsidies in the Southern Great Plain Region 15 years after the EU accession.

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SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND FARMING CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES RECEIVING AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT SUBSIDIES THROUGH AN EXAMPLE FROM THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAIN
Published June 30, 2020

The change of The change of regime resulted in significant changes in the life of the Hungarian rural areas; while the rural income of Hungary used to be world-class, after the change of regime it became incredibly low. Accession to the European Union and the European rural policy opened new aspects for rural areas and the people living there. ...The study presents the sociodemographic and farming characteristics of families receiving EU subsidies in the Southern Great Plain Region 15 years after the EU accession.

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BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT FINANCIAL STABILITY IS A PREREQUISITE FOR SUSTAINABLE GROWTH
Published August 21, 2020
1-21

The central thought of this article is the relationship between the stability of public finances and the sustainable economic development of the country. The paper aims to find an answer to the question to what extent the outer and inner conditions of the social and economic functioning have contributed to, and hindered the domestic development... in the quarter of the century after the change of the regime. The article proves that stability and growth are predisposed to strengthen each other. In absence of financial stability, we cannot talk about competitiveness as a prerequisite for the sustainability of growth, or in a wider sense, the realization of the public good. The latter can be observed basically in the fact that the interests of financial stability and growth are in equilibrium and the satisfaction of socio economic needs is realized in the frame defined by them.

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Foreign trade possibilities of the Fruit – Vegetable sector in the future
Published August 6, 2020
102-112

Hungary can be considered as a small, open economy, therefore the domestic market doesn’t provide enough possibility to sell the grown and produced agricultural products, exportation is vital. In the year of 2010 Hungary had trading activity on the field of agricultural products with 151 countries, which has grown to 164 countries by 2013. Ac...cording to the Strategy of the Fruit- Vegetable Sector the production target is 3,5 million tons for the year of 2020. This target has already been reached in 1990, since then the average production is 2 – 2,5 million tons yearly. We can increase our foreign trade only if the properly classified, carefully packed products can be delivered in the requested quality on the contracted time. Perhaps this is the most sensitive territory where the Hungarian producers are falling back from the international trends. Due to the lack of cash and capital the technological and technical development of the is missing, the trade channels are getting more and more narrow, which will lead to loosing of the market. Nowadays the main problem of the Hungarian Vegetable-Fruit sector is the diminishing quantity of marketable goods, despite of the fact, that the sector could remain a net exporter. The presence of the black market is overwhelming in Hungary which makes the sector vulnerable and hard to regulate. Despite of several good examples and successful enterprises it is still true that the majority of the producers are lacking the needed technological, marketing, management and trade knowledge. They insist on using their obsolete methods, and not willing to learn and change. There is a problem in the forecast of the expected yield. The Vegetable-Fruit sector is the
most export driven part of the Hungarian agricultural sector as it is selling more than the 50% of all production abroad. In order to be sustain this share it would be fruitable to have a more favorable tax policy and the revision, cancellation of the „Primary producer” system. In each case the main problem is that there is no common base and trust between the trader, producer and management. This is why it might happen that a member of the TÉSZ is willing to sell his product outside the system, because this way he thinks to have safe income. As the organization doesn’t have a safe base of products for sale they can not develop the market and if they have no safe market, due to the missing trust there will be no safe base of products for sale, and the circle is closed and the whole problem starts again.

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TERRITORIAL INEQUALITIES IN EUROPEAN UNION AND IN ROMANIAN REGIONS
Published August 21, 2020
51-61

The quickly increasing of economic and social inequalities are the most prominent territorial process. Economic disparities between the regions of the European Union are of constant concern both for policy and economic research. Romania is one of the European Union countries within regional inequality is high. The purpose of the study is to pre...sent the evolution of the economic and income disparities in the romanian regions by examining the period of 2014-2018.

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