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Branding Hungary as a Health Tourism Destination: Asynchrony Problems
Published August 21, 2020
68-72

Branding a country as an attractive tourism destination is an extremely complex and long-term endeavour. There are several brand assessment systems using diverse methodology for creating brand indices for countries. In the Bloomberg brand indexing system Hungary is ranked 20th in Europe and by Future Brand 23rd in 2014. These placements are ind...icators of a relatively poor performance of Hungary as a nation brand and warrant an integrated image building effort
independent from the changing political power structure. There are certain basic principles to adhere to in branding a tourism destination be it settlement, regional or country level. One of the keys to succesful branding is synchronising marketing efforts on different levels. Asynchronous communication and strategies lead to confusion in image perception, hence the weakening of the brand. The present paper aims to examine some of the asynchronies in the branding of Hungary as a health tourism destination.

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A comparative study of tourism Education on vocational level in Hungary and Finland
Published August 21, 2020
1-7

The rapid growth of tourism in Hungary and the labour migration to abroad resulted in a serious labour shortage in the industry. One of the sources of skilled and motivated workforce is the system of tourism vocational education and training, which can just slowly react to market changes due to its inertness. In addition, the highly centralized... system provides low-level of freedom to respond to regional differences, as the National Core Curriculum and its related regulatory documents are compulsory for the institutions and maintainers implementing them.

This paper seeks for possible solutions to the prevailing challenges by a comparative examination of the tourism VET system in Finland and Hungary. As a result the author propounds possible alternatives to develop secondary tourism education.

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The Introduction of the SES-SESAR System and its Implementation Process in Hungary
Published August 21, 2020
185-193

This paper introduces briefly the essence and the goals of the Single European Sky initiatives and the background and the purpose of the SESAR ATM research. The author reviews some innovative air navigation research already implemented in Hungary.

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Skills related to EU Projects
Published August 21, 2020
113-119

Our country with its accesion to the European Union in 2004 became eligble to use EU funds for its national developments. More than 7,8 billion Ft had already arrived in Hungary during 2007- 2013. The allocation and the use of EU funds represent a unique and never returning oppurtunity but also a great responsability for Hungary. While infrastr...uctural projects (e.g roads, urban rehabilitation, fulfillment of derogation obligations) has dominated the 2004-2006 and 2007-2013 periods, the Széchenyi 2020 National Development Programme focuses mainly on economical development, 60% of the 8 200 billion Ft allocated EU funds will serve the cause of reviving and boosting the economic growth. Besides this, environmental protection, employement, innovation and the knowledge economy will represent also main focuses for the use of EU funds in Hungary. Where ever we look we see the the multitude of results of EU funded infrastructural, human, and research projects. In the 2014-2020 period even young professionals graduating from Szolnok College will be able to become potencial applicants for EU funds. During the course „Projects, from application to materialization” iniciated within the Bethlen István Specialized College
students were able to get acquainted with the basics of project writing, project terminology and project management.

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Foreign trade possibilities of the Fruit – Vegetable sector in the future
Published August 6, 2020
102-112

Hungary can be considered as a small, open economy, therefore the domestic market doesn’t provide enough possibility to sell the grown and produced agricultural products, exportation is vital. In the year of 2010 Hungary had trading activity on the field of agricultural products with 151 countries, which has grown to 164 countries by 2013. Ac...cording to the Strategy of the Fruit- Vegetable Sector the production target is 3,5 million tons for the year of 2020. This target has already been reached in 1990, since then the average production is 2 – 2,5 million tons yearly. We can increase our foreign trade only if the properly classified, carefully packed products can be delivered in the requested quality on the contracted time. Perhaps this is the most sensitive territory where the Hungarian producers are falling back from the international trends. Due to the lack of cash and capital the technological and technical development of the is missing, the trade channels are getting more and more narrow, which will lead to loosing of the market. Nowadays the main problem of the Hungarian Vegetable-Fruit sector is the diminishing quantity of marketable goods, despite of the fact, that the sector could remain a net exporter. The presence of the black market is overwhelming in Hungary which makes the sector vulnerable and hard to regulate. Despite of several good examples and successful enterprises it is still true that the majority of the producers are lacking the needed technological, marketing, management and trade knowledge. They insist on using their obsolete methods, and not willing to learn and change. There is a problem in the forecast of the expected yield. The Vegetable-Fruit sector is the
most export driven part of the Hungarian agricultural sector as it is selling more than the 50% of all production abroad. In order to be sustain this share it would be fruitable to have a more favorable tax policy and the revision, cancellation of the „Primary producer” system. In each case the main problem is that there is no common base and trust between the trader, producer and management. This is why it might happen that a member of the TÉSZ is willing to sell his product outside the system, because this way he thinks to have safe income. As the organization doesn’t have a safe base of products for sale they can not develop the market and if they have no safe market, due to the missing trust there will be no safe base of products for sale, and the circle is closed and the whole problem starts again.

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RENEWABLE ENERGY USE IN HUNGARY AND IN THE SURROUNDING EU MEMBER STATES
Published August 21, 2020
23-29

In our paper, we survey the changes of the last 10 years regarding the use of renewable energy in Hungary and the surrounding EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia). In 2015, the share of renewable energy in EU28 is 16.7% of final energy consumption, 28.8% of electricity, 18.6% of heati...ng/cooling and 6.7% of transport. We present the renewable energy targets of Hungary and the surrounding member states and
their fulfillment in 2015. We also look at the share of the gross domestic energy and renewable energy consumption.

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Financing SMEs – Prospects in Hungary
Published August 21, 2020
74-90

After joining the EU, micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises came to the focus of attention in Hungary for their grandiose role in both employment and producing added value. Due to their flexibility, creativity and adaptability SMEs find new market opportunities easier. Also, SMEs can find their way and seize appearing opportunities more q...uickly under rapidly changing, insecure and high-risk circumstances.When analysing the sector, besides the investigation of the external environment, it is also important to focus on internal factors. The success of businesses is not only influenced by their access to financial resources, but also by their internal organisational structure and the standard of their organisational culture. In the present phase of world economy, when
transports are delayed, credits are harder to obtain and companies downsize, leaders have to make careful and considerate management and operational decisions. Thus financial decisions have considerable short and long-term effects on the success of business operation.This research paper aims at a comprehensive study of the present situation of the Hungarian SME sector, some of its financing opportunities, as well as factors that hinder its development. Another purpose of the present writing is to lay the theoretical foundations for a primary questionnaire research exploring the financing characteristics of SMEs in Hungary.

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Sustainable Development and Corporate Responsibility in Hungary
Published August 21, 2020
247-253

The concept of corporate responsibilty has been around for many decades, yet its application and supplantation into practical usage has not been highly successful in Hungary. This study is an assessment of recent developments and the current performance of companies.

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Results of a participatory action research in Mezőcsát, in the Northern part of Hungary
Published August 6, 2020
149-158

Participatory action research could be a tool for strengthening rural areas, it could help the process of integrated rural development based on endogenous resources. This is a good method for rethinking the local and the wider interests and relationships in a changing social and economic environment. As a result there could be a practical solut...ion at the end. This research can generate new interaction between local people, thus ensuring better communication and more successful cooperation. After introducing the tools of participatory action research this paper presents the first steps and results of a participatory action research which has started in Mezőcsát in the Northern part of Hungary. The aim of the research is to find real solutions to real problems (eg. unemployment) defined by inhabitants. Outcomes of this research are a stronger community in Mezőcsát and mapping a possible enterprise built on local resources.

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FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF LISTED COMPANIES OF VISEGRAD COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA
Published August 21, 2020
8-17

In this study, listed companies of 5 countries (Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Czech Republic, and Romania) were analyzed between 2014 and 2018. The data was downloaded from www.EMIS.com. Financial institutions and companies with too many missing data and those that were not full period listed on the stock exchange were removed from the dataset. Th...e main aim of the research was to compare the performance of the listed companies on the stock exchanges of countries examined. First, there was analyzed performance indicators, then market indicators. Using variance analysis, there was investigated the differences between countries based on ROS, ROA, ROE ratios, which then was expanded to include some market ratios. Based on the results, it can be stated that due to the difference in the number of listed companies and the size of the companies, large variations can be observed both within and between countries. No best country can be determined because almost all of the indicators perform better in different countries during the period examined. It is important to note that earnings per unit capital are the highest in Hungary and the Czech Republic, so investors are likely to expect higher returns in these countries. During the analysis of variance, there could not be found in many ratios with significant differences between countries over the years investigated.

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Tourism Competencies Development – Contradictious Perceptions of Stakeholders
Published August 6, 2020
126-141

Tourism and hospitality sector has an important role in the national economy as it has high  labour intensity, generates foreign currency income and improves the local economy by multiplier effect. Tourism labour market employs a wide range of employees from non-qualified to highqualified people. Tourism tertiary educators in Hungary conti...nue their operation by national-level legislation, and accreditation and students who complete tourism courses (should) be capable of professional occupation. The post-Bologna system offered more opportunities in tourism and hospitality education; two distinguished courses were available on the educational market to educate hospitality or tourism experts. After 2006, by launching Bologna system, institutions are allowed to commence just one, Tourism and Catering bachelor programme. A questionnairebased survey was conducted among graduating bachelor students with tourism and catering major, tutors teaching tourism and catering students and actors of tourism market, who going to be the employers of tourism graduates. The main aim of the research was to explore the personal or organizational expectations of stakeholders for professional competence development as a result of tourism and catering bachelor-level education. The bust majority of students stated that their primary aim is to gain professional competencies in tourism and hospitality to be able to fulfil managerial positions or to continue their studies on master-level. Although generic competences as communication skills in foreign languages, social sensitivity, problem solving or creativity have salient influence on job performance, students did not believe that they would be
essential. However, these factors were thought to be the most crucial by tutors and tourism service providers despite the fact that generic skill development is not in focus in tourism and catering bachelor-level education in Hungary. Not just the educational institutions but tourism companies providing work placement for students were considered to be an appropriate basis for competencies development that raised the question of monitoring and assessment. The findings can be profitable for all stakeholder group or policy decision makers in bachelor-level curriculum development. 

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The Fat Tax in 2011 and in 2012
Published August 6, 2020
40-47

Approximately 119 million of the US population, that is 64.5 percent of the adult US population are either overweight or obese. 17.5 million young, obese people live in the European Union. The proportion of overweight or obese people is higher than 60% in Hungary. It causes a dramatic increase in health expenditure. Possible solutions include t...he introduction of a fat tax. Hungary introduced the fat tax in 2011. The rate of fat tax has increased in 2012.

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The economic impact of intellectual property in Europe and Hungary
Published August 21, 2020
83-89

As the aim of the article, to show in the framework of theoretical research, to assess the situation of Hungarian intellectual property in the life of businesses. In our paper, we try to analyze and present this area approaching it from an economic side, which seems to be a mere legal phenomenon for an outside observer.

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Educational Tourism: a Conceptual Framework
Published August 6, 2020
30-37

Though educational tourism has already emerged in the early times in Europe, the theoretical analysis of educational tourism is relatively recent. The firts books on educational tourism were only published in 2003. In Hungary the weight of educational tourism is not hight - less then 1% of tourism arrivals and less than 4% of total tourism spen...ding - but per capita spending is the highest among tourists arrivinh in Hungary with educational purposes. Surprisingly  tourists arriving for longer than one day with an educational purpose had more than 100% higher spendig during the last couple of years than tourists arriving for more than one day with business purposes. Because this high spending educational tourism is very important for the towns, where foreign students pursue their studies. Not only foreign student mobility can be regarded as educational tourism but internal student movement as well. Students who live other towns and who come to a town to entrol at a university have important contribution to the economy of this town - just like the non-educational, traditional tourists to do.

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REJTETT GAZDASÁG ÉS A COVID-19 JÁRVÁNY ÖSSZEFÜGGÉSEI
Published November 18, 2020

BeHidden, black, untaxed or shadow economy, all terms mean the same thing, but even though we have several words about the phenomenon, many people do not know what it is, its extent and there are no exact values about how the black economy is developing in Hungary. A black economy is, in short, the part of the economy after which no tax has bee...n paid, so for example, the activity that takes place or the employment takes place in black is unofficial. We talk a lot about it, and the government is also making more and more efforts to whiten the economy. As a result of a number of measures taken, there are rumors that the shadow economy has been reduced. What exactly is a hidden economy? To what extent is the tax-free economy in Hungary? Can the existence of the black economy be completely abolished, can the economy be completely bleached? I am looking for answers to these questions within the framework of this scientific article. What is the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the hidden economy and what responses might the government have?

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Kunhalmok védelmének helyzete Békés megyében
Published August 6, 2020
5-12

Cumanian mounds, „kurgans” have a great importance in the history of the Carpathian Basin from cultural and nature conservai on, landscape, archaeological, botanical and zoological viewpoints. The kurgans are more thousands years nai onal values heritages. In Hungary these appear with the highest number in the fi eld of Great Hungarian Plai...n. Their size and relai ve height about 1-12 m. Unfortunately, the diff erent agricultural aci vii es resulted in their coni nuous degradai on and their number also decreased over the past centuries. There were remarkable changes in agricultural regulai on concerning Cumanian mounds in the EU – and in Hungary too – in 2010. They were declared protected landscape elements therefore they became part of cross-compliance. In our research we will check the results of the new regulai on in relai on to the changes in the state of Cumanian mounds in Békés County.

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The Auditing System in Hungary
Published August 21, 2020
21-30

The auditing work goes back several decades in Hungary. Following the change of the political and economic regime the professional auditing of tax returns of companies and the discovery of mistakes and deliberate errors became necessary in the emerging market economy. Auditing - apart from the supervision of enterprises - includes the examinati...on of the utilization of competition resources and the authentication of accounts. The auditors strive to ensure the purity
of entrepreneurial public life. It is an important fact from the point of view of judging this work that the auditors are not official people, they do their work as entrepreneurs and are liable for its accuracy with all their assets.

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The Conception of the Philosophical and Social Scientific Trend of Psychology in Hungary in the 1900s
Published August 6, 2020
60-67

In Hungary, the science of psychology separated early in the XX. century using three trends: the tradition of social science emerged from the philosophy, the psychoanalytic trend was born in the healing and the natural science in the children-experiments. Famous representatives of the philosophical trend were Szüts, Ribot, Pikler, Leopold, Kor...nis, Posch. We can recognise the concepts of the human inner processes, the cognition and the soul activity of the early psychology
from their publications.

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The Typical Features of the Regional Specialization in Poultry-Farming in Hungary Today
Published August 21, 2020
34-42

The territorial location issues of livestock in the European Union and also in our country have got into the focus over the past few years. There are different animal structures in the regions of our country and different animal species have become dominant. The location and the development of certain animal types are affected by a number of so...cio-economic factors (the history of breeding, ownership, labour and capital assets, etc.). In the case of the spatially differentiated species-structure we have to reckon with a variable profitability, human resources, technical standards, different risk factors and market opportunities in the different regions. The topicality of the research theme is enhanced by the fact that nowadays the spatial structure of animal production has become a key issue. That is why more and more research is needed in Hungary, primarily research studying and analysing the structural changes and principals of animal production (poultry production) in order to ensure that each region would have a rational and efficient breed-structure. In addition, it is expected in modern market economies that the various regions should specialize in animal species, for which they have the most favourable breeding conditions. In order to follow the poultry stock changes (spatial and structural) in the last decade, it was important to consider the spatial specialization of different species over time.

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EXPLORING NON-VALUE-CREATING PROCESSES USING THE VSM METHOD THROUGH A CASE STUDY OF A SMALL ENTERPRISE’S MANUFACTURING SYSTEM.
Published June 30, 2020

One of the major problems in Hungary is the low level of productivity. This low level is particularly noticeable among small and medium-sized enterprises. In most regional and Western European countries, the average productivity level of enterprises of this size is higher than in Hungary. The current and expected shortage of labor in the near f...uture poses a challenge to businesses. Creating wage growth that contributes to retaining the workforce can only be achieved in the long run by increasing productivity. If an organization is unable to achieve productivity gains, it will fall short of both domestic and international-global competition. The application of modern management and management systems, such as lean management, can be a key element in increasing the productivity and competitiveness of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises. Lean management is one of the most common and effective process organization methods and paradigms used in the secondary and tertiary sectors, so much so that the use of lean-based management methods has in many cases become a competitive criterion and fundamental.

In our research, we prepare the value process mapping of a CNC metal cutting SME, including the value process of CNC milling and turning processes. This value process mapping method offers an opportunity to make losses in the industry become known and preventable. Through the preparation of the map, it is possible to illustrate the processes that produce mud and thus reduce the lead time and increase productivity. In the course of our study, we present the practical implementation of the method through the example of a company manufacturing metal parts machined with CNC technology.

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The qualitative and quantitative research of hungarian origin effect on private label food brand choice in east Hungary
Published August 6, 2020
215-299

Nowadays there is more and more focus on researches of food shopping behaviour, as its key role in social practices -and in the shaping of life quality after all - is inevitable due to social effects of basic re-structuring and their undisclosed nature in the post socialist countries. These social effects are still going on because of the crisi...s and changes in trade politics.Earlier researches more or less focus on abstract ranges, separating daily social behaviour from their solid contexts.This is why I chose East Hungary with its smaller decretionary income and purchasing power as the spatial focus of my reasearch and the method of focus group discussion and questionnarie with food shoppers in the frame of a qualitative research and quantitative research. On the other hand, one of the reasons of the timeliness of chosing this topic is that several researchers (Totth, 2012, Polya-Szucs, 2013; Szakály, 2014) and market research institutes came to the conclusion that Hungarian customers prefer products of Hungarian origin to goods from abroad if they are cheaper than their foreign equivalent. That is why for Hungarian customers cheap own brands can be a priority even over less costly imported goods.

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Opportunities and preconditions of foreign language-taught study programs With a special focus on small Hungarian colleges
Published August 6, 2020
6-16

In many countries of the world and also in Hungary many higher education institutions develop international – mainly English-taught – study programmes. Such programmes offer many benefits for the institutions and their management, their faculty, their students and their administrative staff. One is a stable and increasing income that improv...es the HEI’s financial stability, the stability of the institution itself and the security of jobs. Many of the benefits origin from
internationalisation. Standards and requirements are high on the international education market, the HIEs have to develop a premium education. This requires an adequate organisational framework, high-quality infrastructure and all participants must be trained. Meeting the challenge offers development opportunities and ensures high quality for all participants. Small countryside colleges in Hungary cannot increase the number of their students domestically, the only way out is international education. 

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Ideas for Connecting Rural Communities
Published August 6, 2020
208-214

People may feel alone, especially in the rural parts of modern countries. They may be unemployed or undereducated, or they can have a job and a family. One can find fewer entertainment or other cultural possibilities in a rural area. Connecting those who are disconnected can help them be better members of a community and of a church. The presen...ters represent two countries (USA and Hungary). It is evident that local USA communities have better internal connections than communities in Hungary. Helping people connect will help them feel important! Here is some useful advice and observations in order to improve the results of the rural communities: choose a logo or slogan (or both) for the community, survey local people, publish a local guidebook, promote local traditions, provide opportunities to participate and learn, provide „best practises”.

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Catering in the Dining Cars of the Future
Published August 6, 2020
87-92

The examination of catering has become an importantissue for MÁV, the Hungarian Railways again. It plays an extremely outstanding role during longer trips, but it can also increase the comfort of passengers during shorter trips. Numerous good examples can be found worldwide, which can be adopted by Hungary. The present examination and research... have started at the request of MÁV Zrt. Railway is the second most significant way of transport, aft er the airlines. However in order to be able to keep this position, railway has to widen its range of services, such as dining cars. We are trying to support the reform of dining cars considering all the relevant professional viewpoints.

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DISABLED CHILDREN'S SPORT CONSUMP-TION EXPERIENCE IN DISCONTINUED SUP-PLIED ELEMENTS
Published August 21, 2020
21-29

The proportion of people with disabilities and changed functional work capacity has in-creased not only in the EU, but also in Hungary, with parallel studies showing an increasing trend. In our research, we examined the sporting habits of 8-18 year old children (N = 283) living with disability in the North Great Plain region, and asked about th...eir experience with the supply elements of accessible sports facilities and integrated sports programs.

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