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Economic analysis of some agrotechnical factors in maize production - a Hungarian case study
Published December 31, 2019
5-16

This paper focuses on the economic and statistical evaluation of the production technology findings of the polyfactorial maize production experiments carried out between 2015-2017 at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management. The examined agrotechnical fa...ctors included irrigation, previous crop, tillage, crop density, hybrid and N nutrient supply, while the effect of different crop years was taken into consideration. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, we used multivariate regression analysis during the statistical evaluation. In the course of the evaluation, we examined three models that differed in terms of tillage methods and the consideration of crop year. In our best fit model, the factors were 71% responsible for the change in yield value. We carried out efficiency and comparative analyses in the course of the economic evaluation.
Averaged over the three examined years, it can be stated that nutrient supply and crop year had an outstanding effect on yield, while irrigation had a minimal effect. However, global warming may justify irrigation in the future, not only from a biological point of view, but also from an economic aspect.
Ideal tillage is also greatly affected by crop year, too. Altogether, of the examined tillage systems, subsoiling proved to be the best from an economic point of view.
Our investigations confirm that it is better to perform intensive farming under more favourable market conditions. The optimum of N fertilisation is probably outside of the range we examined, if the extreme changes in maize and fertiliser prices are ignored.

JEL Classification: Q16, Q12, Q13, O32

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The empirical examination of changes related to value drivers in the effects of the 2007-2008 crisis
Published December 31, 2016
31-35

The article brings into the focus the corporate value creation and the main value drivers. The first goal of the study is to classify the most relevant value drivers, and their function of the firms’ value. Further objective of this paper is to present the effects of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis. This article demonstrates the followi...ng. The first part introduces the value chain and illustrates the primary and the support activities of the companies. The second section briefly presents the 2007-2008 global economic crisis, introducing its causes, events and financial aspects. The third empirical part of the paper analyses the database featuring data from 18 European countries, 10 sectors and 1553 firms in the period between 2004 and 2011. At the end, the fourth part contains conclusions. Based on the related literature reviewed and in the conducted empirical research it can be assessed that 2008 can be seen unambiguously as the year of the crisis. In this year, all independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variable.

JEL code: P40

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20
4
Hungarian spirits palinka as a “hungaricum” II. The effect of tax-free production in Hungary and in the European Union
Published December 31, 2016
137-144

Palinka is a traditional Hungarian fruit spirit prepared exclusively by the distillation of fruit mash or fruit pulp. As an alcohol product, it is subject to the Act CXXVII of 2003 on Excise Duties and Special Regulations on the Distribution of Excise Goods amended several times. The present government of Hungary pledged to grant the right of f...ree palinka distillation again in the previous election campaign. As of 27 September 2010, the excise duty of subcontract-distillation was repealed, and the previously non-existent “official” home distillation was introduced, which resulted in explicit revenue losses for the state budget. The modification of the law mentions distillate instead of the word palinka. The difference between the two notions will be discussed in the present study. Presumably, lawmakers did not consider the fact that at the time of Hungary’s EU accession we entered into an agreement stipulating that the tax on subcontract-distillation should not be lower than 50% of the tax on alcohol products. Having been unable to agree on a solution to the problems in question, Brussels launched an infringement procedure against Hungary. Finally, Hungary was convicted; therefore, tax exemption or palinka distillation shall be ceased. This regulation came into force on 01 January 2015. The reactions of those who used the services of subcontract distillation were negative; turnover plunged by approximately 85% compared to the year of 2014. The present research will present the amendments concerning home distillers due from 2016 and the elements of the bill intended to amend the Act LXXIII. of 2008.

JEL CODE: K34, L51, L66

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19
4
The Role of „Handball At School” Program in Ability Development and Replenishment Training
Published May 2, 2018
53-60

In Hungary the undisputable merit of TAO subsidy is realized in replenishment training, human resource development and development of sports infrastructure. The other important base of replenishment development is „Handball at School” programme managed by Hungarian Handball Federation. „Handball at School” programme was launched in rela...tion to every-day physical education and we undertook the skills-building role of its impact assessment. A survey programme was organised by us in the autumn and spring semesters of 2015/ 2016 academic year aiming to prove that project has positive effect on aiming accuracy and performance stability results of pupils, as well as their precision of technical implemetation. 183 pupils were examined who had two sponge-handball lessons a week out of their 5 physical education lessons. When choosing the pilot scenes it was considered important to get Budapest, Easternand Western Hungary also involved. To examine aiming accuracy two tests were applied. One is „throwing at a target from throwing straddle without previous swing” performed by the pupils. The children were expected to hit the small box five times with right technical implementation meaning that it was done with lifted elbow. After the first implementation they were given some time to relax and the the shots were repeated five times again. The children were asked another task to perform, a similar one to the first, but it had to be performed from running up, that is they ran back from a line, took the sponge ball, ran back to the line and had to hit the small box again with lifted elbow. At this task several aspects were noted and measured again: the time needed for implementation, target accuracy and also whether the technical implementation of the throw was accurate.

JEL Classification: I21, Z28

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