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On tests for long memory process behavior of international tourism market: Thailand and India
Published December 31, 2011
95-99

In our research we examine the behaviour of both Thailand’s and India’s international tourism market by using long-memory analysis. The international tourism market of Thailand combined with seven groups such as East Asia, Europe, The Americas, South Asia, Oceania, Middle East and Africa. Similarly, the international tourism market of India... combined with nine countries: USA, UK, Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Malaysia, Australia and Sri Lanka. Moreover, three statistical tests for long-memory process such as R/S test, Modified R/S test and GPH-test are employed to study these markets. The empirical findings in general provide more support for long memory process in international tourism market of Thailand and evidence for short-term dependence in international tourism market of India. Therefore, the policy makers of each country should understand the behaviour of long memory process in international tourism market before launching any stimulating campaign to this industry.

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The role of small-scale sports events in developing sustainable sport tourism – a case study of fencing
Published December 29, 2014
17-22

Promoting sports and sport tourism is considered as a strategic development objective at the local, regional and national levels in Hungary. However, sport tourism is present in many different forms, depending on the type of sport activity, the related sport events and its participants, therefore it is challenging to decide on the type of sport...s and sports events that should be supported to ensure long-term social and economic benefits for a local community. The scale of sports events ranges from the small, local competitions to the international mega sports events. Although the economic benefits of mega sports events are generally appreciated, there has been growing critique about their negative social and environmental impacts. Smallscale sports events also have important potential for tourism, and they may have more advantages for the local community than the mega events by providing additional incomes, using the already existing infrastructure, raising local pride and community spirit. Sport tourism related to small-scale events is generally considered to be a more sustainable form of tourism. The purpose of this paper is to examine the tourism development potential of small-scale sports events, particularly focusing on fencing competitions. It highlights the demand side of the sport tourism market, investigating the behavioral profile of the participants of an international fencing tournament. A questionnaire survey was conducted at the Budapest WestEnd Women's Epee Grand Prix 2014. The data revealed that participants of the sporting event spend only a short period of time at the destination, and shopping and eating out are the most preferred free time activities. The paper identifies and discusses issues regarding the role of sports organizations and tourism agencies in cities hosting such events to increase the tourism potential of small-scale sports events in the future.

 

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Forecasting with X-12-ARIMA: International tourist arrivals to India and Thailand
Published May 30, 2009
43-61

Forecasting is an essential analytical tool in tourism policy and planning. This paper focuses on forecasting methods based on X-12-ARIMA seasonal adjustment and this method was developed by the Census Bureau in the United States. It has been continually improved since the 1960s, and it is used by many statistics agencies and central banks. The... secondary data were used to produce forecasts of international tourist arrivals to India for 2007-2010 and also these data were used to produce forecasts of international tourist arrivals to Thailand for 2006-2010. From these period the results confirm that the best forecasting method based on the X-12-ARIMA seasonal adjustment is X-12-ARIMA(0,1,2)(0,1,1), X-12-ARIMA(0,1,1)(0,1,1) and X-12-ARIMA(2,1,0)(0,1,1) for India and the best forecasting method based on this method is X-12-ARIMA(0,1,1)(0,1,1) and X-12-ARIMA(2,1,0)(0,1,1) for Thailand. Furthermore this method predict that international tourism arrivals to India for 2007–2010 will growth at a positive rate as same as in this during period the number of international tourists arrival to India will be 5,079,651 million, 5,652,180 million, 6,224,480 million and 6,796,890 million, respectively. Also this method predict that international tourism arrivals to Thailand for 2006-2010 will growth at a positive rate as same as in this during period the number of international tourists arrival to Thailand will be 12,211,033 million, 12,699,532 million, 13,187,591 million, 13,674,669 million and 14,161,998 million, respectively. If these results can be generalized for future year, then it suggests that both the India government sector and the Thailand government sector also the private tourism industry sector of these country should prepare to receive increasing numbers of international tourist arrivals both to India and Thailand in this period.

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On tests for long-term dependence: India’s international tourism market
Published December 31, 2010
77-81

There have been growing interest in studying behavior of long memory process in tourism market. In this research examine the behavior of India’s international tourism market based on long-memory analysis. The international tourism market of India combined with nine countries: USA, UK, Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Malaysia, Australia and Sr...i Lanka. Moreover, three statistical tests for longmemory process such as R/S test, Modified R/S test and GPH-test are employed to test in these market. The empirical findings in general provide more support for no long memory process or no long-term dependence in international tourism market of India.

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24
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On tests for long-term dependence: India ’s international tourism market
Published June 30, 2011
109-113

There have been growing interest in studying behavior of long memory process in tourism market. In this research examine the behavior of India’s international tourism market based on long-memory analysis. The international tourism market of India combined with nine countries: USA, UK, Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Malaysia, Australia and Sr...i Lanka. Moreover, three statistical tests for longmemory process such as R/S test, Modified R/S test and GPH-test are employed to test in these market. The empirical findings in general provide more support for no long memory process or no long-term dependence in international tourism market of India.

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26
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Analysis of the cavebath of Miskolctapolca’s brand elements and guests satisfaction
Published December 31, 2016
155-160

In the region of Northern Hungary the unique Cavebath of Miskolcatapolca is one of the leading health tourism service positioning itself on national and international market with its developing supply items and 4 star qualifications. It has a unique natural background all over in Europe; this uniqueness gives an opportunity to develop brand, wh...ich is a determinative item of competitiveness. Because of the competition between destinations and the ever-changing nature of tourists’ expectations and behavior tourism destinations need to be managed as other commercial brands. The aim of our research was to analyze the role and possibilities of product development which is based on the unique natural factors, and to help to expand the domestic health tourism supply. We examined how the possibility of branding and brand equity change based on brand elements; how satisfied are guests with the services; how often guests visit the bath; what kind of period guests arrive in the bath; what kind of services do guests try; how do guests arrive in the bath with. In summer of 2014 we asked 210 Hungarian customers to fill the questionnaire in the Cavebath. The choosing of guests happened randomly. 199 questionnaires were correctly filled.

JEL CODE: Z32

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58
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The understanding of international tourism development
Published December 31, 2011
53-54

Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. Tourism has become one of the major players in international commerce, and represents at the same time one of the main income sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an increasing diversification and competition among destinations (Unwto, 2010).W...orking and serving in this pumping industry means to understand and react to the needs of all these people moving around this “small” planet! Success is defined by those who understand these needs and fulfill them to the satisfaction. Unfortunately, our industry is rather slow and we can be characterized as reactive instead of innovative.We adapt too slow compared to other industries that define the needs of their costumers before the costumers actually calls for it!

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The understanding of international tourism development
Published December 31, 2010
61-62

Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. Tourism has become one of the major players in international commerce, and represents at the same time one of the main income sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an increasing diversification and competition among destinations (Unwto, 2010).W...orking and serving in this pumping industry means to understand and react to the needs of all these people moving around this “small” planet! Success is defined by those who understand these needs and fulfill them to the satisfaction. Unfortunately, our industry is rather slow and we can be characterized as reactive instead of innovative.We adapt too slow compared to other industries that define the needs of their costumers before the costumers actually calls for it!

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21
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International passanger survey at the Airport Debrecen – Main characteristics of departure visitors from AD
Published December 29, 2014
43-49

The main reason of the research is to make a survey of the habits of foreign visitors arriving in Debrecen by air and their satisfaction. What was experienced in 2013 regarding low foreign proportion is also noticable in 2014. In the examined two months, of the whole passenger traffic between London and Debrecen only 10-15% is tourism by foreig...n visitors. There was not any information before about consumption of tourists arriving in Debrecen by air. In the course of my research I was examining the main elements of consumptions. From the gathered infromation from the questionaires it can be ascertained that on many occasions service providers failed to accomplish satisfying levels, quality. Underachievement occured and the experience of the visitors was worse than their expectations. This gives reasons for the indicators detailed analysis. The results of the satisfaction test might be an essential basis to further develop the city’s tourist products and services in the future. Personal experience of either visitors satisfaction or dissatisfaction, gets stored as a memory which influences future decisions on travelling. Because of this the city has to make an effort to provide higher standards of quality to people travelling into Debrecen by air from the first moment of arrival till the last moment of departure and leave satisffied.

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Increasing palinka recognition with tourism and gastronomy
Published December 31, 2017
37-44

The history of Hungarian palinka distillation dates back thousands of years. Palinka is a special product; its quality features are being increasingly recognized and appreciated by consumers. Our national drink went through considerable transformations in the past years, as it left the village environment behind and has become a Hungaricum, pop...ular with young people. The authorization of home distilling in September 2010 was a key factor in its gaining ground in the country. In connection with this topic, the international practice of beverage tourism has been reviewed. After that, the Hungarian practice was examined, including the selection of palinka festivals, thematic palinka tours and palinka product ranges in 19 counties and in Budapest based on a total of 100 restaurants. Using SWOT analysis I revealed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of palinka gastronomy and pálinka industry. Overall, it was found that the popularity of pálinka is increasing, but the thematic pálinka tours have not yet widened, and there is a need for more procedures supported by community marketing.

JEL Code: Z30, E83

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Water footprint in Hungary
Published November 30, 2012
83-91

More and more news report on water-related extreme environmental phenomena. Some of these are natural, which are often beyond the human race. But others are definitely due to anthropogenic effects. I think the water footprint index is able to highlight national and international water-use processes and gives us the opportunity of organizing a s...ustainable, consumer-, environmental- and governancefriendly management. 81% of the fresh water withdrawal is from surface water bodies in the EU. In Europe as a whole, 44% of abstraction is used for energy production, 24% for agriculture, 21% for public water supply and 11% for industry. Public water supply is confined to ground waters. To the water resources related human activity caused qualitative and quantitative amortisation will grow worse in the foreseeable future due to the climate change. Beside seasonal differences the sectoral differences are increasingly becoming critical between different areas, such as Southern and Western Europe. The former, wrong agricultural support system has worsened the situation since it gave financial aid for the used improper techniques of water-intensive crop cultivation. By today, this seems to be solved. Public water abstraction is affected by many factors, of which mostly are based on social situation and habits, but technological leakage receives a big role as well. Interesting, that for example the residents’water consumption in Eastern Europe decreased because price were raised and regular measurements were introduced. But in Southern Europe it increased due to tourism in the past period. Industrial water withdrawal decreased across Europe because of the decline of industry and the development of technologies. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA), the Union needs a sustainable, demand-driven leadership which focuses on the preservation and use efficiency. This have already appeared in politics and legal administration as well. Current research calls the attention to the significance and difficulties of this kind of domestic estimation presented trough the water footprint calculation of bread and pork in Hungary. The received data indicate the domestic water consumption trends in a modern approach. There is no doubt for me about the urgent necessity of water footprint calculation because as a result innovative, sustainability supported environmental, social, economical, and political relationships can be created – not just on local, regional or national level, but on interregional, European and even global stage.

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