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Factors influencing the gross value added in the sheep production chain
Published December 31, 2012
141-146

The competitiveness of the sheep sector in East Europe has been decreasing from year to year. The value added in the sector is not generated in the countries as a high proportion of the lambs are exported. For example, in Hungary, 95% of the lambs, unnecessary for replacement, are sold at an average weight of 21 kg and are slaughtered abroad. A... stochastic model was constructed to investigate the connections between the cycle phases of the mutton production. Three modules were distinguished, the lamb production, fattening and slaughtering-processing sub-modules. The aim of our study was to identify the gross value added generated in the three sub-modules and to analyse the main factors influencing its volume using the conditions in Hungary as an example. The major hypothesis of our research was that the profitability of the production chain is mainly determined by the breed. The results showed that, considering market prices, the gross value added in the processing module was mostly influenced by the number of lambs sold per ewe per year at the bottom level of the mutton product chain. The next most important factors were the weight gain in the lamb producing and fattening sub-modules and dressing percentage in slaughtering-processing sub-module. Contour plots were constructed which help to describe the relationship among analyzed factors. Using the contour plots, the gross value added for different combinations of these factors might be forecast.

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52
14
Cognitive dimensions of subjective quality of life in Hajdú-Bihar county
Published December 30, 2013
131-135

The objective of the present study is an investigation of the objective and subjective factors of life quality. Researchers and political leaders show increasing interest in the question: on what grounds do people judge their quality of life, what satisfies or makes them happy? Do we subconsciously make some kinds of mathematical calculations w...eighing our results achieved in certain areas of life to assess how we are getting on? Or rather we use one “indicator” (e.g. money, number of friends, professional recognition) and we assess our situation accordingly? These issues necessarily emerge when it comes to the consideration of the quality of life. Among factors determining life satisfaction, earnings, employment, health and relationships play significant roles. Therefore, on the leading edge of this research are primarily the cognitive factors of life quality, i.e. external factors influencing satisfaction. The present study also seeks to identify the role of health tourism in the assessment of the quality of life. Questionnaires were completed in one of the most popular tourist destinations of Hajdú-Bihar County. The 805 local respondents expressed their views primarily about factors determining their well-being and about the impacts of the dominant presence of health tourism on their lives.

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43
6
Characteristics of physical activity at the university of Debrecen
Published June 30, 2020

The assessment of physical activity is a much-researched field. Physical inactivity has negative consequences. In the development of diseases, a key risk factor is insufficient exercise. Emphasizing the relation between physical activity and health is a constantly discussed matter. UD-FCSNE students will play a key role in educating children fo...r a healthy lifestyle. They will become teachers and specialists. Mapping students’ motives concerning physical activity, we can see the order of motive factors and the factors influencing the different age groups. The majority of students exercise less than 30 minutes per day. Most of them do leisure sporting. To increase physical activity we must provide leisure sporting facilities, based on the population’s needs. Maintaining and increasing fitness are chief motivational factors, unlike expectations and competition. The order of motives is significantly different. These differences occurred in five categories. There is a difference in physical activity between full and part-time students.

JEL code: Z2

ARTICLE IN PRESS!

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28
Analysis of the producer price of Hungarian raw milk in international comparison
Published December 31, 2012
27-32

Although the dairy market crisis eased in 2011, Hungarian dairy farmers still find it difficult to produce milk profitably. As a result of the crisis, many dairy farmers abandoned milk production or reduced the size of their dairy herds in 2009 and 2010. Today, many of farmers are also considering ceasing production, in spite of the fact that t...he global dairy industry is facing an upturn. A dairy farm can operate profitablyy in three ways: 1) if it can reach a relatively high level of producer price 2) if it can increase milk production per cow 3) if it can achieve a relatively low cost of production. In the present study, I primarily analyse the development of the Hungarian producer price of raw milk in international comparison. Next, I list those factors which directly or indirectly influence the producer price of raw milk. Finally, I examine the relationship among disposable income, milk consumption and milk price. Since the start of 2009, the dairy market has been confronted with a period of extraordinary law prices. After bottoming out, prices had begun to slowly stabilise during the second half of 2009. By the end of that summer, international prices had started to strengthen and the last quarter of 2009 was characterized by a steady rise in prices. The strong recovery in prices experienced after 2009 was triggered by increased demand, mainly from oil exporting countries, but also from China.
The price increase, however, reflected a significant increase in input costs in Hungary; the high level of feed prices and the unfavourable change in the macroeconomic environment must be stressed. The rising excise duty on diesel fuel and the VAT increase had a direct impact on Hungarian dairy farmers. These negative factors have increased the costs of the sector, narrowing the ability of those active in it to operate efficiently.

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50
12
The competitiveness of rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan
Published September 30, 2013
89-96

This paper analyses the main factors influencing the regional competitiveness of rural areas in the Tatarstan Republic. Firstly, 19 variables related to the socio-economic situation in the Tatarstan Republic were analysed, these having been taken from the Statistics Committee of the Tatarstan Republic. Principal component analysis (PCA) was the...n used to determine the weights of 10 indicators that have an effect on the level of regional competitiveness. Factor weights are used as weights in the summation of the standardised scores of variables that have an impact on competitiveness. The major factors influencing the level of regional competitiveness are the level of economically active population, investment in housing and the level of education. The following results were obtained: one of the 44 regions is very highly competitive and two are highly competitive; two of 44 regions have a medium level of competitiveness and 39 regions have a low level of competitiveness.

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Corporate branding effects on consumer purchase preferences in Serbian telecom market
Published June 30, 2011
91-104

This research is carried out to know the role of corporate branding in mobile phone network along with different influencing factors involved in the purchase of mobile telephone connections. This paper discusses corporate branding from consumer’s point of view that how much they value it and what type of role it has.This is a quantitative stu...dy. A questionnaire is used in order to investigate corporate branding and other influencing factors involved in purchase decision of the customers. Population selected for this study are Belgrade University students which is the most of Serbian youth segment and is a valuable source that gives precise information with high probability about market preferences according to the Research of Serbian republic statistical office. Primary data are obtained by collecting data from questionnaire and interview, while the secondary data are collected from various reliable sources. Primary data provide reliable content in accordance with a secondary data obtained by Serbian republic statistical office and with a Research of competitor and consumer preferences insight provided by Telenor Company. The analysis of the data has been performed in accordance with the chosen theories and summarized in a table, which serves as a tool for deriving reliable and relevant conclusions. The sample size was determined by conducting a primary study and defining the variance of primary sample and the intended number of samples was selected carefully and randomly from the population. Then the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was determined. The used questionnaire in this research consisted of 7 common, and 30 specialized questions which were supporting the hypotheses of the research. Data was analyzed using the frequency percent techniques, and in the chapter related to the deductive statistics, one-sample t test was used to analyze and approve/disapprove the questions supporting the research hypotheses. The analysis of this study reveals different set of results while making comparison between literature and empirical. It investigates the relative importance of the corporate branding to the customers in mobile phone telecommunication industry while making purchase decision. The findings of this study provided useful information which is helpful not only for the students but also for the brand managers of mobile telecom operators that how they can improve their company’s strategic position for longer period of time through corporate branding to trigger more customers and for a good brand.

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Factors influencing Albanian consumer preferences for standardized olive oil
Published December 31, 2016
131-136

Albania is considered one of the most important countries where olives are cultivated due to its geographical position and climate conditions. The country is facing many problems with the quality of olive oil which is related to cultivation methods and agronomic techniques. The economic value of the sector is calculated almost €20 million per... year. For years the cultivation of olives and associated products have been considered an important sector within agriculture and are an integral part of the Albanian diet. The current study aims to analyze the factors influencing consumer preferences for a standardized olive oil. The data collection was conducted through a socio-economic survey. The survey was an important element which provided general and specific information linked to the study area. The interviewees were selected randomly. Descriptive and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the survey data. As a result, we conclude that Albanian consumers prefer domestic olive oil because they are familiar with the taste and believe in its qualities. Usually, Albanian consumers choose the quality of olive oil at the purchase moment, due to their close relationship with the seller.

JEL CODE: D12

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45
7
Medals and degrees: factors influencing dual career of elite student athletes at the University of Debrecen
Published September 1, 2015
93-98

Career planning and goal setting play a significant role in the life of elite athletes gaining critical relevance during the overlapping years with university studies. As athletic career contain a necessary end and cannot serve as a profession for life, all athletes shall go through modification period in their professional lives. The athletic ...career shall come to an end and elite athletes need to find another profession for which they need to prepare as well. The specialities of this undertake is that the peak or the progressive cycle of athletic career often times overlap in time with high school and university studies. This definitely challenges those young athletes who made the decision to continue their studies at the university level beside their athletic careers. The objective of this study is to explore the main factors influencing the simultaneous realisation of studies and elite sport careers during university years. Part of a complex research approach on dual career in sport this study is aimed to gain information about methods of athletes for managing their dual tasks, the perceived relationship of student athletes to their peers, teachers and coaches, and their position on the relevant policy regulations provided by the university environment. Following the development of research instruments, data collection was conducted by focus-group interviews at the University of Debrecen among student elite athletes receiving sport scholarships (N=15). Level of success in sport, sport type (individual and team) and gender distribution was taking into account. The results shall contribute to the development of a future research instrument in a form of a questionnaire to assess aspects of dual career of athletes in case of larger samples.

JEL code: Z20

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Touristic Motivation and Lifestyles of Hungarian Domestic Tourists Correlation Study
Published December 20, 2019
47-54

Motivations are closely interwoven with personality theories. According to researchers the object of motivation theory is primarily to describe what is common in people, whereas lifestyle theories highlight the individual differences among people. Tourism ...travel decisions constitute a special type of consumer decisions in which case the tourist has to make a choice among the personal tourism services on offer according to his/ her individual needs, but still as a segment specific product corresponding to common motivations. Consequently, certain elements of lifestyle and motivation theory appear in touristic decisions as well. Having perused the relevant trade literature, I came to the realisation that there have been very little research done in the area of travel motives in recent years. The examination of the correlation between motivation and lifestyle complemented with model application is a field belonging to applied marketing science which can be regarded as uncharted territory in tourism research. Domestic tourism accounts for a significant portion among the national income sectors. That is why it is of key importance to be aware of the correlation between the habits and needs of the local population and the factors influencing travel decisions. Applying the results of my research I endeavoured to define and model the lifestyle, needs and motivations of domestic tourists as the factors influencing their decisions. With the results of the investigation, I also wished to provide some guidelines for the creation of tourism supply in view of product development and communication.

JEL Classification: Z32 tourism and development

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Corporate branding effects on consumer purchase preferences in Serbian telecom market
Published December 31, 2010
23-36

This research is carried out to know the role of corporate branding in mobile phone network along with different influencing factors involved in the purchase of mobile telephone connections. This paper discusses corporate branding from consumer’s point of view that how much they value it and what type of role it has.This is a quantitative stu...dy. A questionnaire is used in order to investigate corporate branding and other influencing factors involved in purchase decision of the customers. Population selected for this study are Belgrade University students which is the most of Serbian youth segment and is a valuable source that gives precise information with high probability about market preferences according to the Research of Serbian republic statistical office. Primary data are obtained by collecting data from questionnaire and interview, while the secondary data are collected from various reliable sources. Primary data provide reliable content in accordance with a secondary data obtained by Serbian republic statistical office and with a Research of competitor and consumer preferences insight provided by Telenor Company. The analysis of the data has been performed in accordance with the chosen theories and summarized in a table, which serves as a tool for deriving reliable and relevant conclusions. The sample size was determined by conducting a primary study and defining the variance of primary sample and the intended number of samples was selected carefully and randomly from the population. Then the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was determined. The used questionnaire in this research consisted of 7 common, and 30 specialized questions which were supporting the hypotheses of the research. Data was analyzed using the frequency percent techniques, and in the chapter related to the deductive statistics, one-sample t test was used to analyze and approve/disapprove the questions supporting the research hypotheses. The analysis of this study reveals different set of results while making comparison between literature and empirical. It investigates the relative importance of the corporate branding to the customers in mobile phone telecommunication industry while making purchase decision. The findings of this study provided useful information which is helpful not only for the students but also for the brand managers of mobile telecom operators that how they can improve their company’s strategic position for longer period of time through corporate branding to trigger more customers and for a good brand.

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39
25
Determinants of credit access of cocoa farmers
Published December 31, 2019
73-78

Access to credit is one of the critical areas that are of prime interest to development practitioners, agribusiness entrepreneurs and agricultural economists, mainly access to credit by farmers in order to increase their production and also reduce poverty. This study sought to analyze the determinants of credit access among cocoa farmers in the... Asunafo North of the Ahafo Region of Ghana. The multistage sampling procedure was used to collect data from 100 cocoa farmers with the aid of a questionnaire. Sources of credit, factors influencing access to credit, and constraints to credit were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression, and Kendall’s coefficient of concordance respectively. The results of multiple linear regression revealed that, age, marital status, education, experience, and family size were significant factors that influenced access to credit. The constraints analysis with the aid of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance showed that, high interest rate was highly ranked with a mean score of 1.93 whilst the need for a guarantor was least ranked with a mean score of 7.40. Based on the results, the study recommended that a policy aimed at expanding formal and semi-formal financial institutions credit portfolio to embrace cocoa farmers by finding alternative to collaterals and also reducing the interest rate will improve credit access with a positive externality effect of poverty reduction among cocoa farmers in the study area.

JEL Classification: Q14

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The Investigation of Factors Influencing the Market Prices of Agricultural Land in Hungary
Published May 2, 2018
5-10

The role of land (as the basis and the resource of agricultural production) is the most significant among the resources of production. The ownership of land, its use, the issue of its price and value, they have been key problems of political, social, legal and economic decisions. There were theoretical and practical experts throughout the world..., and we intensively have to deal with the issue of land evaluation. In our research using empirical data collection and statistical methods, we examined not only the factors have influenced on land prices, but its effect as well.

We have proven that the „golden crown”-based land evaluation system (golden crown is a measurement unit of the quality of agricultural land in Hungary) can show the land quality differences even today, but in spite of this, the results of calculations (and also the practice) increasingly justify and urge the necessity of the introduction of a modern land evaluation system.

namese professionals graduated in Hungary, the reputation and popularity of Hungarian agricultural products and technologies, the achievements of R&D in the field of agriculture – could not be utilized from Hungarian side. Vietnam, however still preserved its socialist political establishment,but in terms of its economic development strategy and economic policy has gradually been standing on the basis of market orientation. Vietnam, with its population of ninety million shows a rapid and successful development and it means good opportunities even for Hungarian entrepreneurs.

It would be a mistake to leave these potentials unused.

JEL Classification: Q10, Q24, Q30

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Co-innovation: what are the success factors?
Published May 30, 2009
29-36

The problem we address in this paper is that in projects focusing on public-private cooperation to stimulate innovation in the Netherlands, initiatives often lack continuation after the study-phase. We extracted possible influencing variables from business and (transaction) cost economic theorizing, stakeholder and capability theory. Moreover, ...we used measures for classifying projects with respect to financial interdependencies between participants. We supposed that project characteristics influence managerial behavior to continue or stop. We studied 28 projects (20 supply chain projects and 8 biological product development projects). Our aim was to explore the barriers and success factors for these co-innovation projects: innovation as a cooperative effort between public sector/research institute and private organization(s). We derived data from project descriptions and performed semi-structured interviews with project informants. Critical to success appears to be ex ante commitment of all parties. Goal congruence, both at a personal and a company level, and proportionality of sharing in project results are of decisive importance to establish such commitment. Estimations about financial project results should be made in an early stage; they should be used as a basis for negotiations on the (re)distribution of costs and benefits, especially if the value added is disproportionally distributed over the participants. Ideally, project teams of co-innovation projects should bring in complementary capabilities: technical, marketing, financial and organizational. Project governance should therefore be organized in such a way that the knowledge gaps are filled in before kick-off.

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34
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Health factor in soft drink consumption, German example
Published September 30, 2009
41-44

Consumer lifestyle and health are relevant factors to understanding consumption preferences.The number of lifestyle diseases has dramatically increased worldwide. The main cause for these diseases is the change in lifestyle; including a lack of attention to physical activity and good nutrition. Health and lifestyle are important factors by purc...hase decision process. In accordance with these, I examine the consumer behaviour toward soft drinks with special regards to healthy lifestyle and the state of health. My examinations can be considered mainly as a qualitative research among German students, which can serve as a basis for further analyses and research, however, the conclusions and experience gained from it are worthy of consideration. I differentiated five categories: ice tea, carbonated soft drinks, fruit juices, mineral waters, sport and energy drinks and studied the consumer behaviour toward them. The study focuses on the consumption of these and the factors influencing their purchase with special regards to lifestyle.

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33
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Consumer attitudes and preferences about the pork meat in Hungary (based on cluster analysis)
Published December 30, 2013
151-158

In my study I wish to investigate the fact that how the pork consumption of Hungary changed during the last years. This study focuses on consumer’s attitudes about (pork) meat, what do they think about the healthness of the different meat type, what are the strengths and weaknesses of pork meat, what are the main features of good quality pork... meat, what are the major pork purchase influencing factors and what are the favourite food of the respondents from pork meat etc. Then I analyze the tendency of these values (cross tabs, bar/pie charts, means, Chi-square), where can be found significant differences, and make a cluster analysis to identify the pork consumers in Hungary.

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Regional examination of certain factors influencing the quality of life
Published June 30, 2011
73-79

The rate of unemployment in Hajdú-Bihar County is several percent higher than the national average and the actual number of unemployed people is the highest, resulting in considerable social problems. The majority of families living under the minimum subsistence level cannot cover their housing maintenance costs. These costs include the rents ...of tenement flats, public charges, water, electricity, gas and district heating charges. Cutting the number of unemployed people and stimulating economic activity is a high priority. Important tools towards achieving these goals include the promotion of non-agricultural activities by households engaged in agriculture, incentives for rural micro-enterprises, the development of rural and agro-tourism and support for traditional arts and crafts. As for general subjective well-being,although its average value is positive, merely 50% of the population is contented. Naturally it does not mean that we are unhappy. 4 respondents out of 5 claim that they are rather happy.This may suggest that the picture is not so pessimistic as it is revealed by questions about living conditions.

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The role of corporate branding in Serbian mobile phone operator market
Published December 30, 2009

This research is carried out to know the role of corporate branding in mobile phone network along with different influencing factors involved in the purchase of mobile telephone connections. This thesis discusses corporate branding from consumer’s point of view that how much they value it and what type of role it has.

 

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The choice between conventional and organic farming. A Hungarian example
Published December 30, 2009
55-58

The paper deals with organic produce in one of the largest and, concerning organic production one of the most diffused counties in Hungary, Pest County located in the north-central part of the country. Factors influencing farmers’decision on adopting or not e.g. farm size, farm type, location, structure, market for organic products, existence... of organic AEM were analysed. Hypotheses based on previous empirical literature were tested by a model explicitly accounting for the effects of farm-specific variables like age, education, size of farms and share of rented land. Logit model was estimated on a cross-section data set of Hungarian farmers for the period 2007. It appears that education has a positive impact on the choice between conventional and organic farming, and, the size of the farm in hectares has a negative effect on this choice.Age and some general considerations on environmental friendly technologies do not have a significant effect on choice between conventional and organic farming.

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41
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The operation of the Hungarian broiler product chain
Published December 30, 2009
47-50

The general objective of this paper is to present the inner connections of the broiler product chain and the process of value generation in the economic situation of 2007. I introduce the input-output model of the broiler product chain adapted from macro-economic analysis, in which I calculated the direct connections of the product chain phases... and between the national economic branches outside the chain. Then I point to the disproportion of the product chain through the profit distribution. Moreover, to evaluate the process of the value generation I demonstrate the value added generated along the value chain (year 2007). On the basis of the results 825 EUR of value added is realized to one ton of ready product (chicken meat), from which the major portion is shared by processing. The paper also determines the added value and the major factors influencing its ratio within the product chain.

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Quality-satisfaction-loyalty: consumer behaviour in catering
Published December 29, 2014
5-11

Our study is the result of the initial research of a qualitative and quantitative research consisting of more stages. The survey was made between 2007 and 2013 and specially focused on the satisfaction of Hungarian customers of catering enterprises with hot kitchen as well as on factors influencing satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results... proved that a well planned, central strategy cannot be prepared for the whole catering industry as even enterprises with the same profile (warm food kitchen) show significant differences. The most important task for an enterprise is to establish and know its appropriate clientele well in order to suit its services, selection to their requirements. Our assumption that customers of fast food restaurants, canteens have lower expectations from selection, personal relations, quality of services than customers of restaurants, public houses, wayside inns, brasseries with traditional methods of selling was proven. In the lattest, the main aspect of choosing a 'favourite place' was the quality of human relations, with the special role, besides other customers, of the staff. Establishing unique atmosphere to the liking of customers can be regarded as an important point of the operational strategy. It was also proven that the majority of regular customers of restaurants are men, coming from the economically active population. Other active users are youngsters, they mainly go to fast food restaurants. More impersonal advertisements hardly have any effect, while successful word of mouth propaganda can be achieved by consequent, high level work. Regular customers can be characterized by rather emotional than market-based attachment. Favourite units are mainly preferred because of their atmosphere, relationships with acquaintances and friends, not because of measurable features, selection or prices. Those visiting catering enterprises with hot kitchen more frequently are more critical and less satisfied, in spite of this, they are reluctant to part from their regular places.

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Analysis of Bathing Habits among Spa Visitors
Published December 20, 2019
81-90

The valorisation of healthy lifestyle has indicated the dynamic increase of healthcare sector. The consumer behaviour has been forming deterministically in health tourism. Visitors of spa towns can select various combinations of services either to sustain ...their health, to rest, to relax or to recover. It has a great importance for spas offering complex health tourism services to know the demands of guests and to reach the target groups with special, personalized service packages. After considering the statistical indicators of tourists visiting the spas of Northern Great Plain Region and the competitors of a selected spa, this paper aims to investigate the coherence among bathing habits, influencing factors of service demands, age and non-motivating coherences. The survey was taken place in a selected spa in Hajdú-Bihar County in August 2018 with random sampling questionnaire involving 256 visitors. During data analysis the coherence among indicators was examined with variant analysis (Levene’s test), in case of significant result with Welch’s t-test. Variances in age groups were analysed with Tamhane’s and LSD tests (post hoc analyses). We concluded that the primary information source of spas is still the suggestion of friends, acquaintances independently of the age of the respondent. Knowing this is relevant for further marketing communication. The most important features among the respondents are the condition of the spa and cleanness which are the basics of quality services. Motivations with coherence to age are social life and gaining experience, recovery and disease prevention. Visitors have the largest interest for family and kid programs. Recognition of bathing habits helps in marketing communication, reaching target markets effectively, pricing and service developments as well.

JEL Classification: Z32

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Price risk management using by a specified futures model
Published October 30, 2010
97-101

The principal achievement of this paper is to introduce the operation of a specified ‘Futures’ model and it’s practice for decision makers of financial institutes through an example based on the price data’s of grain futures market from EU assessment 2004 to these days in Hungary. Based on a theoretical foundation, the calculation model... was developed in order to assist short and long-term marketing decisions. The economical basis of the model is the combinative use of two market institutions: public warehousing and futures market. This electronically developed and working model ‘using excel background ‘allows all of the participants of the market: producers, consumers,banks and traders, to use this model in immediate calculations. In addition it helps in order to establish the own business strategy. The model can be used to analyze price influencing factors therefore; it can also be used for policy-making decisions for market participants as well as banks dealing with trade financing activity.

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Bicycle tourism in Hungary
Published March 31, 2013
67-71

Side by side with the revaluation of a health-oriented lifestyle various kinds of axtive leisure activities and active tourism in particular have been gaining ground. Cycling, which is popular not only as a leisure time tourism activity but mainly within settlements, also as an environmentally-friendly and up to a certain extent, a highly pract...icable means of transport mainly in towns and cities in WesternEurope, has a privileged position within active tourism (SALAMIN, 2010). This article wishes to present the situation of bicycle tourism, the factors influencing the demand for it and the opportunities for and possibilities of improving it within Hungary by providing an evaluative analysis of the relevant sources of the technical literature. The most important finding of this secondary research-based study is that there is an increasing contention both internationally and within certain regions of tourist interest within Hungary although there is no detailed information available as regards the latter. Success on the market can only be achieved by following the good practices of internationally developed tourist destinations and by a concerted development and improvement of the infrastructure, services and target-group oriented marketing activities as well as attractions.

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