The University of Debrecen, Faculty of Engineering, has been conducting a research program in geothermal energy since 2008. This program enabled me to devise an analytical study of the monetary and non-monetary criteria of geothermal projects. The monetary criteria of a region or a location for geothermal energy production cover the investment...costs of the surface installations and the cost of the drillings. Non-monetary criteria include the geological and geothermal evaluations of a reservoir and the evaluation of consumer potential. This paper represents a small part of the larger study and focuses on consumer potential.
Using biomass to produce energy is not a new idea. In the past, the by-products of energy(?) production processes or naturally grown materials were mainly used for energy production. At the same time, during the production of biomass the conventional sources of energy are used (fuels, the embodied energy of which is used in the production of th...e biomass and equipment, etc.) which must be taken into account when determining the net energy production. This research aims to examine how to optimise the production and use of biomass energy and its supply chain in the energetic and economic criteria system, as well as how to impact upon the managing models of the processes to the energetic and economic parameters of the supply chain; we ask what criteria characterise the natural (environmental), economic and social sustainability, and how they can be implemented e.g. within the framework of an innovation cluster. This article describes a test model, and analyses the results of the model examinations and the conditions for compliance with sustainability criteria. Arguing the environmental, economic and social sustainability among the criteria of the model for evaluation is not possible at all times by means of direct indicators. The results of the research proved that only multi-criteria optimisation models serve a proper decision-making instrument for the evaluation of biomass utilisation for energy production.
Energy production has become one of the key problems in the recent years. Hungary is lacking fossil fuels, but could play a leading role of biomass utilization in Europe. In the concept of biomass not only main-, but by-products (e.g. grape) are be included. Since farmers face a variety of difficulties in disposing of garpe from plantation site...s it would be beneficial to encourage grape use in energy production. In our opinion due to varying transportation costs it is crucial to investigate the amount of potentially usable grape both for the whole country and in local township levels. Our economic studies were done on the Szentantalfa Township’s Balatonfüred-Csopak Vine Region. According to our findings the total amount of grape generated in the township theoretically amounts to 5.28 TJ exploitable that would operate a 360 kW boiler for a whole heating period (6 months). In our opinion the appearance of local energy production based on grape could significantly raise the ability of the future potential income of townships.
Renewable technologies and the extension of their scope of usage basically has to face the general obstacles like any other novelties newly introduced to the market. In the case of environmentally friendly and clean technologies we must consider another critical aspect: the knowledge and the trust of the potential future users. To influence the...se people first we must extend their knowledge regarding renewable energies so they will be able to change their own approach about them. Usually the most crucial factor is the economic efficiency which determines the attitude of the majority of the users. Even the ones whose decision making process is highly based on the environmental patterns. In the case of any technology, the economic aspect is significantly influenced by its operational effectiveness. So this analysis – besides the direct economic matters – aims to examine how the performance of thermal water heating in greenhouses can be improved by using heat pumping.
JEL classification: Q42