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Externality effects of honey production
Published June 30, 2012
63-67

Bee-keeping and honey production has a long history in Hungary. Honey is an important and healthy food of people and it can be consumed without any human processing. The honey production has important role, too. Some researchers say that if honey bee will extinct the humanity in the world would also extinct. It is true since plant pollination b...y honey bees is very important. It is confirmed by researchers’ studies that plant pollination by honey bees has significant positive external impacts on potential yields in orchards. Although the contribution of honey production to the GDP in Hungary is only a few per cent, other benefits play more important role. One of them is the positive external effect – mentioned above – and the other is the contribution to the biodiversity of the nature. This paper focuses on secondary research methods, gathering and evaluating data regarding the positive external impacts of plant pollination by honey bees as well as finding possible solution for the problem that bee-keepers have a lot of costs in connection with carrying honey bees to orchards, while farmers “only” benefit from the positive externality of plant pollination of their fields. To evaluate its economic effects a numerical HEEM-model was developed and applied for the Hungarian situation.

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Agri-product evaluation and biodiversity measurement
Published December 31, 2010
91-93

This paper is meant to be the first part of a two part unit that will be published next. The objective of this paper is to be an introduction of agri-product evaluation, with in which a short summary of essentials of diversity measurement is given and to share experience on evaluation of environmental friendly agri-product. For biodiversity mea...surement and extern effects, literature of related publications was processed and experience gained over experimental projects on environmental-friendly technologies was summed up. Methods applied were based on influence-response approach which guided us all through the research work. It can be stated that one diversity measure or one diversity function fails to describe communities of living beings; therefore, at least two methods should be used in parallel. Scale-dependent description of diversity is necessary, which provides us with new information that can not be revealed by traditional methods. To identify external effects, we have to take influences of use of a specific product into account and the responses generated by use of that product. Influences might appear in parallel or can build up one another, similarly to the generated responses of environment. To be as precise as possible, it is suggested that we take into account only clear responses. Influence-response relations are shown here using terms and concepts in broad sense and in general. More sophisticated application of terms and concepts is needed to evaluate properly and in monetary terms.We will make efforts to clarify terms and their use in the future.

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20
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Agri-product evaluation and biodiversity measurement
Published June 30, 2011
105-107

This paper is meant to be the first part of a two part unit that will be published next. The objective of this paper is to be an introduction of agri-product evaluation, within which a short summary of essentials of diversity measurement is given and to share experience on evaluation of environmental friendly agri-product. For biodiversity meas...urement and extern effects, literature of related publications was processed and experience gained over experimental projects on environmental-friendly technologies was summed up. Methods applied were based on influence-response approach which guided us all through the research work. It can be stated that one diversity measure or one diversity function fails to describe communities of living beings; therefore, at least two methods should be used in parallel. Scale-dependent description of diversity is necessary, which provides us with new information that can not be revealed by traditional methods. To identify external effects, we have to take influences of use of a specific product into account and the responses generated by use of that product. Influences might appear in parallel or can build up one another, similarly to the generated responses of environment. To be as precise as possible, it is suggested that we take into account only clear responses. Influence response relations are shown here using terms and concepts in broad sense and in general. More sophisticated application of terms and concepts is needed to evaluate properly and in monetary terms.We will make efforts to clarify terms and their use in the future.

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22
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