Search



Show Advanced search options Hide Advanced search options
The effect of sowing time on the yield and the variance of the seed moisture content a harvest of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 23, 2006
39-49

Sowing time is an important crop technology element of maize. We studied the effect of this factor on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény, in 2003 and 2004, and near Debrecen, in 2005.
The soils of the experiments were humic gley soil and chernozem. Weather in both years differed greatly. ...2003 was drought. Neither the distribution, nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004 and in 2005, there were favorable and rainy seasons. The distribution and quantity of precipitation were suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids with a shorter vegetation period gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids with a longer vegetation period gave them at the earlier sowing time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids were the best at every sowing times. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture contents of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing times. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year, due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time, than at the later.
In 2005, we applied three sowing times. Unfortunately, the results of the third sowing time could not be analyzed, due to the low plant density. The yield of the six hybrids varied from 12 to 14 t/ha at the first sowing time. At the second sowing time, the yields fluctuated and each hybrid had the lowest yield, except the PR37D25 hybrid. At the latest sowing time, the yield of the PR34B97 hybrid was the lowest. However, this low yield was due to damage from the Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) imago. The moisture content at harvest of the hybrids varied from 16 to 24% at the first sowing time. Yields at the second sowing time were higher. The low yield of the PR34B97 hybrid coupled with a higher seed moisture content. In addition, the maximum value of the LAI was more favourable at the first sowing time, and ranged between 5-5.5 m2/m2.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.

Show full abstract
20
19
The Effect of Sowing Time and Plant Density on the Yield of MaizeHybrids
Published December 6, 2005
95-104

The crop technology of maize has two important elements, sowing time and plant density. In 2003 and 2004 we studied the effect of these two factors on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény.
The soil of the experimental plots was meadow soil.
Weather in both years was differed greatly. 200...3 was drought. Neither the distribution nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004, we could talk about a favorable and rainy season. The distribution and quantity of precipitation was suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
Results of the sowing time experiment:
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids in the early maturity group gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids of the long maturity group gave it at the earlier planting time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids was the best at every planting time. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture content of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing time. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time than at the later.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.
Results of the plant density experiment:
We tested the reaction of hybrids at four plant densities (45,000, 60,000, 75,000 and 90,000 stock/ha) every two years. In 2003, the tested seven hybrids reached the highest yield at the 90,000 stock/ha in the face of a droughty year. The effect of forecrop and favorable nutrients caused these results. In the rainy 2004 year, the yield grew linear with the growing plant density. The yield of the best hybrids were 14-15 t/ha at the 90,000 stock/ha.
Such a high plant density (90,000 stock/ha) couldn’t adaptable in farm conditions in rainy season. It is practical to determine the interval of plant density besides the optimum plant density of hybrids which gave correct yield. The farmers have to use the low value of this interval due to the frequent of the droughty years.

Show full abstract
28
51
The Effect of Forecrop and Plant Protection on the Pathology Parameters and Yields of Winter Wheat
Published December 6, 2005
84-89

We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant prot...ection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.

Show full abstract
28
37
Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production
Published December 21, 2008
51-60

The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, inten...sive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

Show full abstract
32
36
Effects of agrotechnical factors on the quality and quantity of yield in winter wheat production
Published May 20, 2020
69-75

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of basic agrotechnical factors on the yield and quality of winter wheat. Two experiments were set in 2017/2018 growing season, where we studied the influence of different forecrops, fertilizing treatments and cultivars. 204 samples were measured with Single Kernel Characterization Syst...em and NIR grain analyser to determine protein (NIR-P), wet gluten (NIR-WG), Hardness Index (HI), kernel weight (KW) and kernel diameter (KD). Fertilizing had a significant effect on yield, KW, HI, NIR-P and NIR-WG, except KD. N90PK dosage was enough to realize yield potential for 6 out of 9 cultivars, but considering protein content N150PK dosage was needed. The forecrop had no significant influence on yield, KW, KD or HI, however sweet corn as previous crop had significant improving effect on NIR-P and NIR-WG compared to sunflower as forecrop. According to our data of correlation analysis, no negative relationship was found between yield and NIR-P, however HI was in medium positive correlation with NIR-P. The variety Vyckor had the highest yield, but in quality aspect, the highest NIR-P and NIR-WG values belonged to KG Kunhalom variety.

Show full abstract
47
47
Nutrition reaction of different varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bred in Karcag
Published March 23, 2016
63-67

In our study the nutrition reaction of four varieties of winter wheat (KG Bendegúz, KG Kunhalom, KG Kunkapitány, KG Széphalom) has been investigated. In the experiment the effect of twenty different nutrition doses on the yield and thousand kernel weight of the wheat varieties has been studied. Significant difference could be figured out amo...ng the yield and thousand kernel weight of the wheat varieties, so the choice of the proper variety determines the quantity of yield. KG Kunkapitány had the highest yield, while KG Széphalom had the highest thousand kernel weight in the experiments.

Investigating the effect of the nutrients on the yield the conclusion was that all nitrogen doses had significant yield increasing effect compared to the untreated plots, but among the 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 doses there was no statistical difference. In the case of phosphorus the 40 kg ha-1 dose showed statistically verifiable increase of the yield, while potassium doses have no influence on the yields. The thousand kernel weights reached the maximum values where the highest nutrient doses were applied.

Show full abstract
68
67
Examination the effects of different herbicides on the soil microorganisms of a calcareous chernozem
Published November 3, 2010
121-126

Pesticides play a key role in fighting weeds, pests and parasitic fungi. According to surveys, pests reduce the yield of agricultural crops by 35% worldwide. Pests, fungi and weeds account for 14%, 12% and 9% yield loss, respectively (Gáborjányi et al., 1995). Chemicals have contributed to increasing and maintaining the yields of crop product...ion for decades. Today, agricultural production (in spite of many efforts) is unthinkable without the use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). On the other hand, these chemicals contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere, surface and underground waters, and agricultural soils, especially if they are applied improperly.
The sustainable agricultural production pays attention to environment-friendly cultivation-technologies; but at the same time it makes an effort to produce good quality and economical products. The examination of the herbicides’ secondary effects, fits into this chain of idas namely, how the herbicides affect – stimulating or inhibiting – the soil microbiological processes, prevention of soil fertility.
In the course of the experimental work the effect of herbicides on soil biological properties were examined in different maize (Zea mays) cultures. We wanted wished to know that how the herbicides affect the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the life of different physiological groups of bacteria and the activity of microorganisms. A small pot experiment was set up in 2008 with the application of two herbicides - Acenit A 880 EC and Merlin 480 SC – in the breeding house of the Department. The moisture content and nutrient supply were at optimal level in the experiment.
On the basis of results the following can be stated: 
1. It can be stated that the two herbicides and all their doses affected negatively the number of total soil bacteria, the
inhibiting effects were significant. The quantity of microscopical fungi increased by the effect of Merlin 480 SC and decreased in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
2. The Acenit A 880 EC had stimulating effect on the nitrate mobilization. The CO2-production was stimulated by the basic doses of herbicides; the other treatments did not influence the CO2-production significantly.
3. The quantity of microbial biomass-carbon –except for only one treatment- decreased significantly by the effect of herbicides. Besides it, the quantity of microbial biomass-nitrogen increased significantly in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
4. The biomass of test plant decreased in the treatments of herbicides, their quantities were smaller than in the control. In the pots treated by Merlin 480 SC, parallel with the increase of doses decreased the quantity of plant-biomass.

Show full abstract
20
28
Genetic progress in winter wheat quality and quantity parameters
Published December 1, 2020
71-75

Wheat production is significant branch of Hungarian crop production (with about 1 million hectares of sowing area). Weather anomalies resulted by climate change have increased the importance of biological basis in wheat production. Yield quality and quantity parameters of three wheat genotypes sown on chernozem soil type after maize pre-cro...p were studied in a long-term field experiment. Yield amount of the studied genotypes varied between 2894 and 8074 kg ha-1 in 2017 and between 5795 and 9547 kg ha-1 in 2018 depending on the applied treatments. Based on our results it can be stated that in both studied crop years the highest yield increment was realized by the application of the nutrient supply level of N30+PK. As the result of the application of the optimum mineral fertilizer level – in contrast to the control – resulted in significant yield increment in both crop years. The results of the long-term field experiment prove that water utilization of the studied wheat varieties / hybrids was improved by the application of the optimal nutrient supply. Furthermore, the water utilization of the latest genotypes was more favorable by both the control and the optimum nutrient supply level treatments. Analyzing the quality parameters of winter wheat using the NIR method it has been stated that the quality results of the well-known genotype (GK Öthalom) were better than those of the new genotypes. A negative correlation between winter wheat quality and quantity parameters has also been confirmed. As the result of the mineral fertilizer application protein and gluten content of winter wheat increased to a significant extent.

Show full abstract
44
37
The effect of water supply for yield formation of processing tomato
Published November 13, 2012
165-168

The effect of irrigation on tomato yield depends on the actual weather conditions, basically the air temperature and precipitation (quantity and dispersion). The irrigated plants gave a significantly higher yield, and rainfed plants showed a yield loss. The optimum water supply treatment gave a significantly higher proportion of lycopene than t...he control (rainfed) treatment (89% and 80% respectively) in case of Brixsol F1 variety. In spite of this we have not found significant difference in case of Strombolino F1 (cherry type). Content of total poly-phenols measured in Strombolino F1 (cherry type) was significantly higher than that found in the Brixol F1 (normal type). The optimum water supply treatment resulted in a significantly lower content of total polyphenols in both years. Tomato fruits are rich in polyphenols the largest amount of which is rutin from among the identified components.

Show full abstract
44
79
The hydric stress influence on quantityand quality of the maize yield in the Crisurilor Plainconditions
Published May 6, 2013
21-27

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.

Show full abstract
56
73
Effect of N, P and K fertilisers and their interactions in a long-term experiment on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Published October 24, 2016
87-92

The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in t...he deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.

The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:

  1. In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
  2. An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
  3. In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.

      4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more    pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.

Show full abstract
71
67
Productivity and Nutrient Reaction of Maize Hybrids
Published December 6, 2005
78-83

Several factors influence the quantity and stability of maize yield, the most important being the nutrient supply, the hybrid and precipitation. In 2004, during the maize growing season the precipitation was more than the 30 year’s average, with 68.3 mm, but the distribution was unfavorable. The experiment was carried out in Debrecen at the E...xperimental Station of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology. We tested 10 various hybrids with their own genetic characteristics for five different fertilizer doses, in addition to the parcels without fertilization.
The favorable results reached were due to the rainy season. The average yield varied between 7.78-9.67 tha-1. The DK 440, PR37M34, PR38A24, PR39D81 and PR36R10 of the hybrids reacted to higher fertilizer doses with significant growth yields, the yield (more than 11 tha-1) was the highest for N200, P125, K150 fertilizing. The other hybrids, DKC 5211, Mv Vilma and MV Maraton, gave similar results at the N120+PK fertilizer dose and the ensuing doses depressed the yield. Fertilization was more effective thanks to the precipitation. The fourth and fifth dose increased or decreased maize yield depending on the nutrient reaction of the hybrid. The agro-ecological optimum of NPK fertilization was N120, P75, K90 kgha-1.
During the experiment we tested the moisture loss of five hybrids. The rainy crop year’s effect on the seed moisture content at harvest was higher than in previous years. The seed moisture content hybrids at harvest which have shorter crop years (FAO 300) was 18-19%, and hybrids with longer vegetation periods had more than 20% seed moisture content. DK 440 hybrid had the intensive moisture loss of the five hybrids, at the start of the measurement, the seed moisture content was higher than 40%, and it decreased to 18.6% by harvesting.

Show full abstract
20
47
Effect of Irrigation on the Yield and Quantity of Potato Varieties
Published December 6, 2005
53-61

In Hungary, the growing area of potato area dropped dramatically in the last few decades. Additionally not only are we lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields, but the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption hab...its and, often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2003 and 2004, in two years of significantly different precipitation, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, from which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
In Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However the effect of irrigation depends on the crop year. In a draughty year, like in 2003, irrigation could increase the yield by 10%, while in a more favourable wet year, the improving effect of irrigation was low.

Show full abstract
30
44
The effect of irrigation on the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 20, 2020
143-147

In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.

Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly... reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.

The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.

In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.

The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.

However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.

As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.

Show full abstract
51
56
Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
Published September 7, 2001
41-46

The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil...s water management characteristics.
The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
• Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
• The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
• From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
• The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
• The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
• The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

Show full abstract
24
26
Efficiency of Fertilization in Sustainable Wheat Production
Published May 12, 2002
59-64

In sustainable (wheat) production plant nutrition supply and fertilization play decisive roles among the agrotechnical elements, because of their direct and indirect effects on other agronomical factors.
In long-term experiments, we studied the roles of agroecological, genetic-biological and agrotechnical factors in the nutrient supply, fert...ilization and its efficiency in wheat production under continental climatic conditions (eastern part of Hungary, Trans-Tisza) on chernozem soil. Our results have proved that there are different (positive and negative) interactions among ecological, biological, and agrotechnical elements of wheat production. These interaction effects could modify the nutrient demand, fertilizer (mainly nitrogen) response of wheat varieties and efficiency of fertilization in wheat production.
The optimum N-doses (+PK) of wheat varieties varied from 60 kg ha-1 (+PK) to 120 kg ha-1 (+PK) depending on cropyears, agrotechnical elements and genotypes. The winter wheat varieties could be classified into 4 groups according to their fertilizer demand, natural and fertilizer utilization, fertilizer response and yield capacity.
Appropriate fertilization (mainly N) of wheat could affect both the quantity and quality of the yield. By using optimum N (+PK) fertilizer doses, we could manifest genetically- coded baking quality traits of winter wheat varieties and reduce quality fluctuation caused by ecological and other management factors. The efficiency of fertilization on different baking quality parameters (wet-gluten, valorigraph index etc) were variety specific (the changes depended on genotypes).
Our long-term experiments proved that appropriate fertilization provides optimum yield, good yield stability and excellent yield quality in sustainable wheat production. We could this get better agronomic and economic fertilization efficiency with less harmful environmental effects.

Show full abstract
33
21
Nutrient and water utilisation analyses of maize on chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment
Published March 20, 2013
77-82

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have conducted our research at the Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen RISF Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences during the cropyears of 2007, 2008 and 2009, on chernozem soil. In the case of crop rotation three models were set (mono-,bi- [wheat, maize] and triculture [pea, wheat, maize]). The five nutrient levels applied during the treatments were as follows: control [untreated], N60P45K45, N120P90K90, N180P135K135, N240P180K180. The conclusion of our results was the following: the crop rotation, the nutrient supply and the amount of precipitation all influenced the quantity of maize yield. As an effect of the increasing nutrient doses yield increase was experienced compared with the control treatments. In the average of the years the highest increase in yield excess/1 kg of NPK fertilizer was measured in the case of the monoculture (13 kg ha-1). As a consequence of is soil extorting effect the monoculture responded more intensively to the nutrient supplementation than the biculture or the triculture in the studied cropyears. In addition, we have observed that the three-year average yield amount per 1 mm precipitation was significantly influenced by the nutrient reserve of the soil. In the monoculture during the control treatment this value was 25 kg mm-1, the value measured in the case of the biculture turned out to be more favourable (42 kg mm-1).

Show full abstract
72
62
The Effect of Year and Irrigation on the Yield Quantity and Quality of the Potato
Published October 11, 2006
12-16

In Hungary, the growing area of potato area reduced dramatically in the last few decades, additionally we are lagging behind the Western European countries as regards yields and the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, the unpredictable market conditions, bad consumption habits... and many times unfortunately the lack of quality products.
The ecological and climatic conditions of Hungary are not everywhere suitable for potato, in the area of Debrecen the amount of rainfall was lower, and the monthly average temperature was higher than the requirement of potato in its growing season in 2002 and 2003.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 8 and 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Out of the examined varieties 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up on 49.5 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, out of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the under-water mass, the amount of reducing sugars, the colour index of frying and the element contents of tubers.
Summing up, it can be stated that among the agrotechnical year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. On the basis of our results, it can be stated that in potato production variety should be chosen in accordance with the aim of production and technology should be adapted to that specific variety.

Show full abstract
19
23
Effect of year and irrigation on yield and quantity of different potato varieties
Published May 23, 2006
7-14

dramatically in the last few decades. We are lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields. The ecological conditions are not favourable for potato, but the low yields other causes: the use of non-suitable seed, the low level of irrigation and nutrient supply and out of date machinery. The competitiveness of production is further ...decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption habit, and often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and selected quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2004 and 2005, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat (2004) and two rowed barley (2005) as a forecrop. The varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated. We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages and changes, and selected parameters of quality and chemical composition due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However, the impact of irrigation depends on the year effect.

Show full abstract
19
39
The changes of the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) herb and radix drug yield under different fertilization conditions
Published May 23, 2019
79-83

In this research, the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirement was examined under different fertilization conditions in a small plot experiment. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry herb and root drug mass and drying loss under different fertilization settings and meteorological factors.

From the dru...g’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the results, in our opinion, the control setting exceeded all nutrient settings’ results in 2016. In 2017 and 2018, the N75P100K150 nutrient setting has the biggest herb yield. As for the root yield, it was also the N75P100K150 setting which produced the biggest yield.

The Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herbs, the different nutrient settings and meteorological factors.

Show full abstract
100
83
The purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirements investigation in a small plot trial
Published June 30, 2018
95-99
During our research, we investigated the purple coneflower's (Echinacea purpurea L.) drug yield and drying loss change with different fertilization settings in a small-plot trial. We measured the raw and dry drug yield, which we harvested in 2016 and in 2017, as well as the drying loss of these yields. Harvest and... all other works were performed manually. We dried the harvested herba under prenumbra for three weeks. Based on the obtained data, every fertilization settings’ yield was less than that of the control plots in 2016. We measured the highest drying loss in relation to the N60P80K120 supply in this year. In 2017, we measured the highest yield data in the N75P100K150 fertilization setting.
We made single-factor variance analysis to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herba, the drying loss and the different nutrient settings
Show full abstract
78
79
Application of AquaCrop in processing tomato growing and calculation of irrigation water
Published June 30, 2018
183-187

The area and volume of processing tomato production is increasing in Hungary. Irrigation is crucial for processing tomato growing. To save water and energy, it is important to know exactly how much water is needed to reach the desirable quality and quantity. AquaCrop is a complex software, developed by FAO, which is able to calculate irrigation... water needs, several stress factors and to predict yields. A field experiment was conducted in Szarvas in processing tomato stands, under different irrigation treatments. These were the following: fully irrigated plot with 100% of evapotranspiration (ET) (calculated by AquaCrop), deficit irrigated plot with 50% of ET (D) and control (K) plot with basic water supply was also examined. Dry yield, crop water stress index and soil moisture were compared to modelled data. The yields in the plots with different access to water were not outstanding in the experiment. The model overestimated the yields in every case, but the actual and modelled yields showed good correlation. AquaCrop detected stomatal closure percentages only in the unirrigated plot. These values were compared to CWSI – computed from leaf surface temperature data, collected by a thermal cam in July – and showed moderately strong correlation. This result suggests that Aquacrop simulates water stress not precisely and it is only applicable in the case of water scarcity. Soil moisture data of the three plots were only compared by means. The measured and modeled data did not differ in the case of K and ET plots, but difference appeared in the D plot. The obtained results suggest that the use of AquaCrop for monitoring soil moisture and water stress has its limits when we apply the examined variables. In the case of dry yield prediction overestimation needs to be considered.

Show full abstract
129
113
Essential oil extraction from herbs and their use in the food industry
Published September 5, 2018
59-74

Essential oil extraction of wild caraway and thyme was performed using a classical (HD) and microwave hydro-distillation (MWHD) and a laboratory supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with a carbon dioxide as solvent. Our experiments demonstrated that the extraction yield of the essential oil performed in same conditions was influenced by the loc...ation of growth area; the maximum extraction yield of 10 ml 100 g-1 caraway was obtained from dried seeds collected from Csíkmadaras. This quantity far exceeded the yield of the Újtusnád samples. In the case of wild caraway (Carum carvi L.), the extraction method influenced thecomposition of the essential oil (carvone/limonene ratio), the highest limonene content being achieved by classical hydro-distillation. In the case of thyme, this effect was not detected, the thymol/carvacrol ratio was independent from the given extraction method. The obtained thyme essential oil possesses high antimicrobial activity demonstrated by agar diffusion test. The thyme extract provides a good protection against microorganisms collected on the surface of fresh vegetables following bacterial stains: Citrobacter portucalensis, Pseudomonas hunanensis, Pseudomonas baetica, Pseudomonas parafulva, Bacillus mojavensis and Enterobacter cloacae. Protective effect was also detected on the vegetable surface of by chitosan-based edible film coating during a 6-day-long storage period at a temperature of 4 °C. The caraway essential oil used as soft cheese seasoning with a direct, dilution-free method, proved to be unsuitable because the uneven distribution and confer a strong, unpleasant taste to the product in comparison with the ground wild caraway seed-dressed cheese.

Show full abstract
174
164
The trend of cowmilk yield, its compostion and the body condition during the lactation
Published December 21, 2009
69-73

The authors examined the data of 2767 trial milkings andthe months Body Condition Scores of 479 Holstein dairy cows. The condition loss was significant between the 30-60th days. The improvement of BCS begins only after the 120th day. The change in the milk protein and milk fat content were close after the condition changing. In each period of t...he lactation the closeness of the relationship among the condition, the milk quantity and the milk composition were different. In the aspect of the milk quantity the most significant difference was between the 2.5 and 4 BCS cows (6.68 kg) in the last period of the lactation.

Show full abstract
20
68
The examination of relation between the C/N ratio and the biogas yields in the Regional Biogas Plant of Nyírbátor
Published October 20, 2009
63-68

The Regional Biogas Plant of Nyírbátor was built by the Bátortrade Ltd. The biogas plant contains 6 mezophil and 6 thermophil fermentation tanks, because the biogas production is based on mixed compositions. The regional plant is a multifunctional system. It produces agricultural products and biogas with high methane content. The utilization... of biogas is also accomplished here; gas-engines transform it to electricity and
heat-energy. The product electricity is used by the local plants, the surplus is sold. 
The aim of the research is the examination of the quality and quantity of the input materials that put into the mixers and follow the seasonal, periodical and optional changes of the input materials. The analyzation of the quality and quantity data can give an answer to the optional changes of biogas production because the input materials determine the composition of the examined recipe. The C/N ratio was between 11-13, the maximal value of the biogas yield was observed by 12.35 C/N ratio.

Show full abstract
25
33
1 - 25 of 41 items
1 2 > >>