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Correlation between the weather in 2017 and the productivity of maize
Published June 30, 2018
89-93
In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of... maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
In Hajdúszoboszló in 2017, up to October, 445.8 mm of rain fell, which is in line with the average values of 30 years, and is only 45.7 mm less than those. In 2017, the effect of increasing the plant number was slighter. Averaged over the observed fertilizer treatments and hybrids, the yield was 9.10 t ha-1 with 60 thousand plants ha-1, 9.11 t ha-1 with 70 thousand plants ha-1 and 9.12 t ha-1 with 80 thousand plants ha-1. Without fertilization, in most cases, increasing the plant number from 60 thousand plants ha-1 to 70-80 thousand plants ha-1 does not increased the yield but decreased it. With N80+PK treatment the yield changed between 8.90 and 11.27 t ha-1. The effect of increasing the plant number was just slightly observable and did not show a clear tendency. The effect of changing the plant number, even with the highest dosage of fertilizers, could not be detected adequately. In contrast with the plant number, the effect of the different fertilizer treatments was expressly traceable. Compared to the control treatment (treatment without fertilization), with N80+PK fertilizer dosage with 60 thousand plants ha-1 the yield increased by 3.36–4.99 t ha-1. The smallest demonstrable proof, i.e. the LSD5% was 0.22 t ha-1, which means that fertilization, in each case, significantly increased the yield. When analysing the effect of fertilization in the average of the hybrids and the different plant numbers, a yield of 5.61 t ha-1 could be detected, which value was 10.12 t ha-1 with N80+PK treatment and 11.61 t ha-1 with N160+PK treatment. Thus, it can be calculated that compared to the treatment without fertilization, the N80+PK treatment increased the yield by 4.51 t ha-1, while compared to the N80+PK treatment, the N160+PK treatment increased the yield by 1.49 t ha-1. In addition to agrotechnical factors, in maize production, the impact of the crop year is specifically of high importance.
The average yield of hybrids (in the average of the different fertilizer treatments) was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 and 9.11 t ha-1 in 2017. When comparing the yield results against the precipitation data, it is clearly visible that the amount of rain fell in the January– October period is directly proportional to the average yield of maize. The effect of the crop year can be defined in a 5.05 t ha-1 difference in the yield.
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The effect of plant density on maize yield in average and extremely dry years
Published December 21, 2008
7-16

The yield safety of maize has not been satisfactory in Hungary for decades. Yield is influenced by the combination of several factors.
In recent years, the frequency of dry years increased and fertilization decreased. These factors call for a rational determination of the plant density.
I studied the relationship between plant density and... yield in 2003-2004 and 2007 on meadow soil. 
In 2003, the weather was dry. In the vegetation period, the amount of precipitation was 78.5 mm lower and the temperature was 0.97 °C higher than the average of 30 years, the number of hot days was 47-60 (days with a temperature higher than 30 °C). However, we obtained favourable results under experimental conditions in 2003 after wheat as a forecrop using the fertilizer Kemira Power. 
The weather in 2004 was favourable. In the vegetation period, the amount of precipitation was 93.2 mm higher than the average of 30 years.  Although, the distribution of the precipitation could have been more favourable. The yield of the hybrids ranged between 8.87-10.42 t/ha. Among the studied seven hybrids, the early hybrids gave the highest yield at the highest plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha (PR38Y09, PR38A67, PR37D25, PR37M34). However, FAO 400-500 hybrids gave favourable results also at the low plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha (8-9 t/ha). At this plant density, the aeration of the plant stock was better and the hybrids were prone to bringing several cobs. Yield stagnated with increasing plant density (60 thousand plants/ha), then at 75-90 thousand plants per ha, the yield started to increase again.
In 2004 the yield of hybrids was considerably higher than in the previous year. In contrast to yields of 8.87-10.42 t/ha in 2003, yields in 2004 were around 9-12 t/ha.
The yield of the hybrid XO 902 P is above 12 t/ha already at a plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha. It gives maximum yield at the plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha.
The hybrid PR38P92 showed a good response to changing plant density, but its yield was only 9 t/ha at the low plant density value.
In a favourable year, the yield of the hybrids PR38B85, PR37W05, PR37D25, PR37K85 at a plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha 11 t/ha, while at the higher plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha, it ranges around 13-15 t/ha.

Hybrids PR36K20, PR35Y54, PR34H31 have a good individual yield and they are prone to bringing several cobs in favourable years at a low plant density. Their maximum yield at the plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha is almost 16 t/ha.
In 2007, the weather was similar to that of the extremely dry year of 2003. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was 41.9 mm lower than the average of 30 years and its distribution was not favourable either.
In the optimum NPK fertilizer treatment at an optimum plant density, the yield of hybrids ranged between 9.32-10.73 t/ha. The highest yields of 10.22-10.73 t/ha were measured for hybrids PR38A79 (FAO 300) and PR35F73 at a relatively low plant density of 60 thousand plants/ha.
In the average of the hybrids, the optimum NPK dosage was N 131, P2O5 82, K2O 93 kg/ha active ingredient.

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The effect of plant density to the yield results and the yield components of maize hybrids
Published May 16, 2017
89-93

Maize is the crop that is produced on the second largest area in our country, in Hungary. It is planted on nearly 25% of the country’s growing area and it was produced on 1 090 439 hectares in 2016. Despite the continuous development of the biological basis and production
technology, the growth of the yield results is not constant, its flu...ctuation is significant. It can be even up to 60%, because of the extremity of the years. The exploitation of the yield potential of modern hybrids is possible if we harmonize the effects of the ecological factors and properly applied instruments of agro technology and by these we ensure their interaction to reach a favorable outcome. The applied plant density is an important, well researched, but at industrial level a not enough utilized element of the maize production.
The results of the extensive tests, done between 2009 and 2015, showed that the genotype, the year effect and the plant density are in strong correlation with each other determining the yield results. In the past seven years the examined genotypes reached the highest yield
performance at the highest plant densities. The early hybrids (RM90–95, FAO 200–300) are capable of producing them at higher plant density, while in case of the mid and late maturity varieties the further increasing of the density after reaching the optimum level led to yield depression.
According to our experimental results, the yield is in close positive correlation with the increase of the plant density. The effect of the growing season has great significance in forming the yield results and this determines the applicable plant density too.
The yield of maize is determined by a resultant of components. The main component is the number of ears per plant and the amount of kernels per ear, which is calculated from the number of kernels on an ear and the weight of them. The number of the kernels on an ear is
calculated from the number of rows on the cob multiplied by the number of seeds in one row on the cob. In dry years, at lower yield levels the yield decreases because of the shorter ears, while at the higher levels the number of kernels in a row and the thousand-kernel weight decreases,causing yield depression this way. From our examinations it turned out that the plant density reaction of a genotype is individual, every variety reaches its maximum kernel number per hectare – in other words the maximum yield - in an individual way.

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The effect of NPK fertilization and the number of plants on the yield of maize hybrids with different genetic base in half-industrial experiment
Published March 23, 2016
103-108

In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.

The experiment ...took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a halfindustrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants/ha.

In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2015 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 340.3 mm, which was less than the average of 30 years by 105.5 mm. This year was not only draughty but it was also extremely hot, as the average temperature was higher by 1.7 °C than the average of 30 years. In the critical months of the growing season the distribution of precipitation was unfavourable for maize: in June the amount of rainfall was less by 31mm and in July by 42 mm than the average of many years.

Unfavourable effects of the weather of year 2015 were reflected also by our experimental data. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 5.28–7.13 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.

It can be associated also with the unfavourable crop year that the yield of the six tested hybrids is 6.33 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 7.14 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is only 0.81 t ha-1, but it is significant. Due to the especially draughty weather the yield increasing effect of fertilizers was moderate. In the average of the hybrids and the number of plants, increasing the N80+PK treatment to N160+PK, the yield did not increase but decreased, which is explicable by the water scarcity in the period of flowering, fertilization and grain filling.

The agroecological optimum of fertilization was N 80, P2O5 60 and K2O 70 kg ha-1. Due to the intense water scarcity, increased fertilization caused decrease in the yield. As for the number of plants, 70 000 plants ha-1 proved to be the optimum, and the further increase of the number of plants caused decrease in the yield.

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The effect of production area on the development of yield producing factors of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids of different genotypes
Published February 18, 2016
67-72

Maize yield amount development is determined by the given crop year and the genotype of the applied hybrid, but beside these also by the applied agrotechnical factors, in particular by sowing technology. The development of yield amount and yield producing factors of five maize hybrids of different genotypes has been studied in a small-plot fiel...d experiment by the application of different row spacings and plant density variants. The production of the individual plants shows decreasing tendency parallel to the increasing plant density, however, this decrement is compensated by the higher number of plants per unit production area. Individual plant production is determined by the development of yield producing factors, such as the length and the diameter of cobs, just as by the thousand seed weight – that were studied in the present research work as well.

In the present research work the decreasing row spacing resulted in a yield increment of 0.67 t ha-1 (4.53%) in 2013, while in contrast in 2014 yield was decreased by 1.75 t ha-1 (14.87%). The high amount of precipitation in March was determinant in 2013: it filled up the soil water stock and balanced the negative effect of the inadequate amount and distribution of precipitation during the vegetation period for the yield. Lower extent of yield increment (0.6 t ha-1) was registered in 2014 in case of the row spacing of 76 cm than in the previous year. In case of a row spacing of 45 cm the difference between the two crop years was 3.1 t ha-1. The highest impact on the yield production factors was found in all treatment combinations in case of the applied hybrid among the three studied treatment factors. In the crop year of 2014 the effect of plant density on cob diameter and thousand seed weight could be revealed as well. In case of the cob diameter significant difference was found between the plant densities of 70 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1, just as between the populations with densities of 50 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1. In case of the thousand seed weight significant differences could be found by the application of plant densities of 70 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1. The highest values of the studied yield producing factors were measured in case of the plant densities of 50 000 and 70 000 plants ha-1; increasing the plant density to 90 000 plants ha-1 resulted in rather decreasing values.

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The effect of crop year and agrotechnical factors on the yield of various maturity groups of Limagrain maize hybirds
Published July 18, 2012
19-23

The Limagrain maize hybrids in different maturity groups were examined at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Debrecen on a calcareous chernozem soil with loam texture, between 2001 and 2007 in a multifactorial long-term field trial. Doses of fertilizers: 1 N:0.75 P2...b>O5:0.88 K2O fixed proportion of NPK doses. The basic dose of nitrogen is 30 kg ha-1. The application of fertilization was 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 times more than the basic dose, beside of untreated control. The long-term field trial is performed in none irrigated and in irrigated version.
The goal of the study was to analyze the effect of precipitation (environment factor) in one hand, and to evaluate the effect of fertilization and irrigation (agrotechnical factors) on the yield of maize hybrids in different maturity groups in the other hand. At the same time I studied the effect of interaction of different factors on the yield of maize. 

Analysis the yield of Limagrain hybrids revealed: the years considerably affected the level of the yield. In dry years the yield was 1.351 t ha-1 less, than in rainy years. As the effect of fertilization the yield increased, the statistically proved biggest increment was at level of 90 kg N ha-1. Evaluating the maturity groups, FAO 300 hybrids reached higher level of yield. 
In non irrigated conditions in the average of the seven years 60 kg N ha-1 was sufficient to reach the maximum yield. The efficiency of fertilization on yield in irrigated version increased, 120 kg N ha-1 assured the reliable level of yield. 
Without irrigation in comparison to the results of FAO 200 group, with the growth of FAO numbers the yield is increasing in all cases. The most significant increase was at FAO 300 (3.562 t ha-1). With irrigation the greatest difference in yield was in FAO 400 (+2.720 t ha-1) compared to FAO 200.

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Evaluation of reaction to plant density of sunflower hybrids by regression and Kang’s stability analysis
Published December 21, 2008
101-109

The world production area and the total production of sunflower has significantly been growing. The harvested yield was 23.4 and 21.1 million ha in 2005 and 2001, respectively. The total sunflower seed production has also unexpectedly increased.
Although sunflower is produced on lower quality soils in Hungary, in 2005 the average harvested y...ield was 2.43 t ha-1, which was the highest in the world. 
Sunflower is a typical commercial plant and fits well in the crop structure. Since in terms of acreage the most significant crops are corn and cereals, the partial monoculture cultivation cannot be avoided. Sunflower production is a way to eliminate this problem, therefore it has an important role both in cultivation and ecological points of view.
Accordingly, sunflower has an important role in reducing the monoculture cultivation of some plants, as well as increasing biodiversity. Sunflower well adapts to Hungary’s climatic conditions and its production is easily practicable in our country.
The reaction of sunflower hybrids on crop density change is different. Some hybrids are more some are less sensitive to this parameter. In different crop years, the crop density optimums of the different genotypes are also different. In Hungary, the yield and quality is primarily determined by fungal infections, while viruses and bacteria are less important.
The research was conducted at the Látókép farm and Regional Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. The research institute is situated by Road 33,15 km from Debrecen in the Hajdúság. The duration of the experiment was seven years, 10 hybrids were examined in each year.
Two hybrids used every year, Aréna/PR and Alexandra/PR hybrids were tested by Kang’s stability analysis. We found that Alexandra/PR was most balanced at every levels of crop density. Both hybrids performed most stable yield at 65000 ha-1 crop density level and less balanced at 35000 ha-1 crop density level. As a result of improved environmental conditions, the yield increase of Aréna/PR was higher than that of Alexandra/PR.
Our regression analysis found that the maximum yield of Lympil, Louidor, Hysun 321, PR63A82 and PR64A63 hybrids were harvested at 47000-60000 plant ha-1 crop density level. The statistical analysis showed that the highest yield was harvested from Lympil and Hysun 321. As regards the crop yield, the most stable hybrids were Louidor and Lympil. The optimum crop density interval of Rigasol/PR and Larisol (58000 plant ha-1) was wider than that of Diabolo (46000 plant ha-1). The maximum yield of Larisol was higher at the optimal crop density level. As regards yield, Diabol was the most stable hybrid.
The statistical analysis on the stability of the yield of Alexandra/PR and Aréna/PR showed that Aréna/PR is more stable, and its optimal crop density level is lower than that of Alexandra/PR.

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Evaluation of long term experiments from a new aspect
Published September 8, 2020
55-60

During our work, we developed a new, simple method to show the effects of fertilization on yield, which can both be applied over the long term as well as in series of independent experiments.
During the testing of this method, at the experimental farm of the Debrecen University Center for Agricultural Sciences at Látókép on a chernozem so...il with lime deposits, we examined the fertilizer reaction of maize hybrids between 1989 and 1994. The treatments were: winter tillage, plant density of 70-80 thousand, unfertilized, N 120, N 240 kg/ha fertilized treatments, long term experiments using Dekalb 524 and Volga SC hybrids in long term experiments.
Four parameters are shown in the model. In the examined period TRmax represents the greatest yield in the fertilized treatments, NT the yield in unfertilized treatment, k the „efficiency of fertilizer” to NT and b the depression-coefficient, where the expected value is zero. The expected grain yield of the fertilized treatments (Y), in the function of the unfertilized grain yield (x) is the following:

The parameters were determined using the Monte Carlo method, in the optimizing process the sum of deviation square was minimized. The correct conformation of the functions was determined by the greatness of the R-value and the standard error. We found that during six years of testing, the tendency of fertilization efficiency was similar in the case of both hybrids. There was an unfavorable weather interval and, in these years, the yields were low, fertilization did not have an effect and moreover, in extremely bad conditions resulted in an obvious yield decrease. With the  improvement of conditions, which in the case of our country means an increase in precipitation, the efficiency of fertilization increases and reaches its peak at 13-14 t/ha. At this point, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is 4-4,5 t/ha. If the yield of the unfertilized treatments increases from 8-9 t/ha, then the efficiency of the applied fertilizer decreases.
Most likely, the k and b parameters depend on the soil of the experimental location (nutrient and water management) and on the amount of  pplied fertilizer and the characteristics of the  hybrid. With the increase of fertilizer dosage the k-parameter also increases. The greater value though does not obviously mean a more favorable situation. It is true that in medium and good years this means great fertilizer efficiency, but in low or extreme precipitation conditions it also means greater risk. With the increase of the k-parameter, the yield deviation also increases which, from a cultivation point of view, is quite unfavorable. If the value of the b-parameter is other than, zero then the effect is clearly unfavorable, because with the increase of this value, the yield decrease is also greater. The fertilizer reaction of the two examined hybrids can be well characterized by these two hybrids.
Examining the six years, our created model estimated the effect of fertilization on the yield accurately and with a high degree of safety. Both in highly unfavorable and extremely good years, it gave an exact estimate. In our opinion, it can be used well to evaluate the effects of fertilization on yield in the future.

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The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield
Published June 30, 2018
83-87
The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield In our research, we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of m...aize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons.
We analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with a control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
In 2015, the highest yield was produced by hybrid P9241 with N80+PK and 70 thousand plants per hectare. With the N160+PK fertilizer dosage, the same hybrid responded the best, followed by hybrids P9486 and DKC4717. Using the same fertilizer treatment, the 80 thousand plants per hectare population density resulted in decrease in the yield with most of the examined hybrids. In 2016, with the increase in the number of plants per hectare, even with non-fertilised treatment (control treatment), the yield could be increased in the case of each hybrid.
Averaged over the different hybrids and fertilizer treatments, applying 80 thousand plants ha-1 instead of 60 thousand resulted in 1.0 ha-1 yield increase. In 2017, the number of plants had a slighter effect. With N160+PK treatment, in most cases no significant difference can be observed. The value of LSD5%: plant number: 0.20 t ha-1, hybrid: 0.28 t ha-1, interaction: 0.48 t ha-1. With N160+PK treatment, the hybrids produced yields between 10.07 and 12.45 t ha-1. When examining the three years in the average of the number of plants, with treatment without fertilisation, the average yield of hybrids reached 7.53 t ha-1. With N80+PK treatment, this value was 9.71 t ha-1 and with doubling the fertilizer dosage, this value increased to 10.42 t ha-1. No economic profit was gained as a result of applying double dosage of fertilizer; therefore, the N80+PK dosage can be considered ideal.
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Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
Published July 31, 2012
147-151

The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The whea...t variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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Interactive evaluation of the main agrotechnical factors in rape production
Published November 2, 2009
71-79

Our polifactorial rape research was carried out at Látókép Research Centre of Debreceni Egyetem AMTC, 15 km away from Debrecen. The aim was to study the unique effect and the interactive effect of more factors. The research factors were the following: cultivation, time of sowing and nutrient supply. Soil moisture datas proved unambiguously t...hat increasing amounts of chemical fertilizer raise the water consumption of rape, lack of water in fertilized plots were always bigger then the water deficit in control plots. The highest amount of water deficit was experienced in the case of arable plots. However, increasing amounts of chemical fertilizers raised the amount of yield proportionately. We experienced yield depression only in the case of arable plots at the highest level of chemical fertilization. In polifactorial rape research sowing of 24th August 2007 of 2007/2008 was the most optimal in point of the amount of yield. This is most-significant in the case of loosening tillage and disking tillage plots, while the plots of ploughing lag behind those two in point of average yield. We experienced the biggest differences of yield in the case of different tillage plots of sowing on 24t August 2007. Still not even the plot with the highest average reached the limit of 4 tons, which can be attributed to high rate of lodging and the harvest loss caused by this. The biggest amount of yield was experienced in the case of sowing of 24th August 2007, with the highest level of chemical fertilization at loosening tillage plot (3930 kg/ha). We can observe big differences between the tillage methods; plots of loosening show a much better average yield then plots of disking and ploughing tillage. Considering the first observed crop year we can state that alternative tillage methods do have a future in rape growing of Hungary. 

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Grain yield and quality of maize hybrids in different FAO maturity groups
Published October 5, 2010
126-131

An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to ...diseases.
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.

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Technological development of sustainable maize production
Published May 16, 2017
83-88

In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.
The experiment took ...place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly eight ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a half-industrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants per ha.
In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2016 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 605 mm, which was more than the average of 30 years by 160 mm. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 9.63–11.6 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.
The six tested hybrids is 10.65 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 12.24 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is 1.6 t ha-1, it is significant.
Da Sonka hybrid is sensitive to weather, it is able to produce 6 t ha-1 additional yield in case of favourable condition. However, it has a low stress tolerance. The most stable yields were observed at Kamaria and Pioneer hybrids. The effect of vintage is also an important factor on the yield. In average, the yield of maize was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, which was a drought year and 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 that was a favourable year.

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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
65-70
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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Evaluation of the interaction between environmental factors, cultivation and fertilisation
Published July 18, 2012
103-108

The effect of production factors on maize yield was examined in the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre of Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil between 2001 and 2003. The impact of environmental factors (precipitation, temperature, number of sunny hours), cultivation methods ...(autumn ploughing, spring shallow cultivation) and fertilisation (non-fertilised, 120 kg N + 90 kg P2O5 + 106 kg K2O, and 240 kg N + 180 kg P2O5 + 212 kg K2O) on maize yield was examined. During the three years, autumin ploughing significantly increased yield by 2.91 t ha-1 in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was observed in each year, although its extent depended on the given crop year and the applied cultivation method. The higher fertiliser dose (240 kg N ha-1) did not cause significantly higher yield in either year. After the evaluation of the observed correlations, it can be established that the yield increasing
effect of fertilisation was higher in the case of autumn ploughing in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The environmental factors (especially the extent of precipitation) significantly affected the maize yield. 

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The Effect of Plant Density on the Yield of Sunflower Hybrid’s in 2001-2002
Published May 11, 2003
184-189

Nowadays, for increasing efficiency of sunflower production treating hybrid-specific technologies was required. Increasing of hybrid choice gave reasons for trials in respects of critical factors, as well as in case of genotype-enviroment interactions. The effect of changing plant density show up as determinant factor which affects on yield as ...well as on plant hygienic conditions. Trials were established on calcareous chernozem soil (Hajdú-Bihar county), in 2001-2002. The field trials were randomized, in four repetition on small parcels. The plant density trials were established in 35.000-75.000 plant/hectar interval using a scale of 10.000 plant/hectar. 10 hybrids were used in both year.
In 2001, 55.000 plant/hectar density was the optimal, in case of most of the hybrids. The yield of tested hybrids did not show significant difference. Yield decreasing effect of using less than optimal density was more significant than in case of using optimal plant density. In 2002, the optimal density was in 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar interval, there was no possibility to find narrower optimum.
Presence of Diaporthe helianthi and the damage caused by the pathogen was significant in 1997-1999, whereas in 2001-2002 the large-scale appearance of the pathogen did not occur. In 2001, the affect of high plant density on disease caused by Diaporthe helianthi showed just tendency-like appearance, in 2002, the infection showed up just in the end of the vegetation period, without significant damage. In spite of the low infection level, the difference between the infection of the diverse plant density treatment was significant. Increasing plant density made increase the frequency of the Diaporthe helianthi infection. The rate of the flower diseases was around 3-16% in 2001, the highest infection level emerged in 65.000-75.000 plant/hectar density, whereas in 2002, the rate of infection level was less than 10%. The increasing plant density helped the development of flower diseases.

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Nutrition reaction of different varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bred in Karcag
Published March 23, 2016
63-67

In our study the nutrition reaction of four varieties of winter wheat (KG Bendegúz, KG Kunhalom, KG Kunkapitány, KG Széphalom) has been investigated. In the experiment the effect of twenty different nutrition doses on the yield and thousand kernel weight of the wheat varieties has been studied. Significant difference could be figured out amo...ng the yield and thousand kernel weight of the wheat varieties, so the choice of the proper variety determines the quantity of yield. KG Kunkapitány had the highest yield, while KG Széphalom had the highest thousand kernel weight in the experiments.

Investigating the effect of the nutrients on the yield the conclusion was that all nitrogen doses had significant yield increasing effect compared to the untreated plots, but among the 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 doses there was no statistical difference. In the case of phosphorus the 40 kg ha-1 dose showed statistically verifiable increase of the yield, while potassium doses have no influence on the yields. The thousand kernel weights reached the maximum values where the highest nutrient doses were applied.

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Effect of the plant density on different maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids yields and leaf area index (LAI) values
Published March 5, 2015
51-56

We have investigated the plant number reactions of three maize hybrids of various genotypes in a small-plot field experiment. The plant numbers were 50, 70 and 90 thousand ha-1, while the row distances were 45 and 76 cm. The experiment was set on the Látókép Experimental Farm of Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University o...f Debrecen in four replications on calcareous chernozem soil.

The assimilation area and the leaf area index have important role in development of the crop yield. The studied three different genotype maize hybrids reached its maximum leaf area index at flowering. The maximum leaf area index increased linearly with increasing plant density. The season-hybrids reached less yield and leaf area index. According to our experimental results, we have concluded that with the decrease of the row spacing, the yield increased in the average of the hybrids. The studied hybrids reached the maximum yield at 70 and 90 plants ha-1 plant density. We determined the optimal plant number that is the most favourable for the certain hybrid under the given conditions.The higher plant density was favourable at 45 cm row spacing than 76 cm. The hybrids reached the maximum grain yield at 45 cm row spacing between 76 712–84 938 plants ha-1, while the optimum plant density at 76 cm row spacing changed between 61 875–65 876 plants ha-1.

The leaf area index values between the applied plant density for the flowering period (July 1, 24), we defined a significant differences. In the archived yields were significant differences at the 45 cm row spacing between 50 and 70, 90 thousand ha-1 plant density, while the number for the 76 cm row spacing used did not cause a significant differences in the yield. There were significant differences between the examined hybrids of yields.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014
51-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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The scientific background of competitive maize production
Published September 5, 2018
33-46

The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant densit...y, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.

Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.

Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.

The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.

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Examination of Hybrid-specific nutrient supply at corn on chernozem soli
Published July 31, 2012
91-95

The effect of increasing fertilizer dosages on the yield of eight different maize hybrids (SY Ondina, NK Kansas, NK Lucius, NK Octet, NK Thermo, SY Flovita, SY Brillio, NX 47279) has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011. According to our results it can be stated that contrarily to the control treatment the application of different nutrien...t-levels has resulted a significant yield increment (2 000–5 800 kg ha-1).
Based upon the results of this experiment we have drawn the conclusion that the nutrient level of 120 kg N+PK was the optimal for the investigated hybrids. The highest yield (14 475 kg ha-1–15 963 kg ha-1) of the hybrids with different genotypes has been produced in case of this fertilizer treatment. With the comparison of the control and the optimum-fertilizer treatments the yield-increasing effect of mineral fertilization and the different reaction of hybrids towards increasing fertilizer dosages have been proven. In case of the control treatments the best-yielding hybrids were NK Thermo (11 917 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (11 617 kg ha-1). Contrarily on the optimal nutrient supply level the hybrids SY Brillio (15 876 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (15 963 kg ha-1) have produced the highest yields. Summarizing, we can state that the hybrid NX 47279 has resulted stable and high yields in the fertilized treatments. Analysing the yield-increasing effect of 1 kg fertilizer active substance it was proven, that the hybrids SY Flovita (45.43 kg ha-1), SY Brillio (44.47 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (42.33 kg ha-1) had a good reaction towards even lower nutrient supply levels as well. In case of the control treatment the average water utilization coefficient of the hybrids was significantly lower (35.2 kg mm-1), than in case of the optimal nutrient supply level (N120+PK) treatments (48.9 kg mm-1).
Therefore the hybrid specific difference between the water utilization of genotypes could be revealed.

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Effect of Irrigation on Maize Yield (Zea mays L.)
Published September 15, 2003
30-35

We have been continually examining the fertilizer and irrigation reaction of commonly cultivated maize hybrids for nearly twenty years at the Látókép experimental station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University.
Upon evaluating the results, it can be established that year significantly influences the size of yield. Be...tween the years of 1999 and 2002, in the average of applied fertilizers the difference is 3,4 t/ha, but even in irrigated treatments it reaches 3 t/ha. This is more than the effect of irrigation. Of the applied agrotechnical elements, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is the greatest and can even be greater than the effect of year. The yield increasing effect of fertilization can be reliably detected with small and medium doses, but at higher doses a plateau section is reached, where it is not worth applying more nutrients. Cultivation with irrigation can only be done with appropriate nutrient supply, due to the positive correlation of the two factors. The positive correlation also means that if the water supply of the plant declines, less fertilizer is needed for safe production. The two factors (irrigation and fertilization) have to be increased or decreased at the same time.
According to the experiment, in unirrigated treatments, 90 kg/ha nitrogen and the related phosphorus and potassium are enough, while in irrigated treatments this was 120 kg.

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Examination of the population density and sowing date of different maize genotypes in the Hajdúság region
Published July 31, 2012
111-115

The experiment was carried out 6 km from Debrecen, next to the main road 47 on a homogeneous field on brown forest soil. Five corn hybrids were tested in the trial (DKC 4795, DKC 4995, KWS Kornelius, NK Cobalt, PR37 N01) at three different sowing times (early – 5th April, average – 21st April, late – 10th ...May). At each sowing time, three different plant densities were applied (modest – 58 500 plants ha-1, average –70 200 plants ha-1, high – 82 300 plants ha-1). The agrotechnics applied
in the experiment satisfied the requirements of modern corn cultivation.

In the study, the best yield result was achieved with the early sowing time out of the three examined sowing times (11 315 kg ha-1), which was significantly different (LSD5%=495 kg) from that of the average sowing time (10 690 kg ha-1), however, there was no statistically justifiable difference between the yield results of the early and the late sowing times. There was a significant difference also between the average and late sowing time. Our results indicate that the different sowing times resulted in a different flowering times. Consequently, the stands of early and late sowing time reached this critical stadium of growth under proper climatic circumstances (precipitation: 39 mm and 136 mm, average temperature at flowering: 18.1 oC and 20.3 oC), while flowering in the case of the average sowing time of 21st April was in the first half of July and the average temperature at flowering was warmer (23.2 oC) with only 10 mm precipitation.
In the experiment, the plant density response was also examined. According to the measured data, four of the five hybrids responded badly to the increasing plant density. We found that the plant density of 58 500 plant ha-1 gave the largest yield results (DKC 4995 11 794 kg ha-1 – NK Cobalt 10 998 kg ha-1, average of five hybrids: 11 430 kg ha-1), while the lowest yields were obtained at the plant density of 82 300 plant ha-1 (KWS Kornelius 11 037 kg ha-1 – NK Cobalt 10 019 kg ha-1, average of five hybrids 10 720 kg ha-1). The difference between the two plant densities was significant (LSD5%=494 kg), however, the 70 200 plant ha-1 plant density did not show any statistical difference from neither the 58 500 ha-1 nor from the 82 300 plant ha-1 stands. When examining the data of the hybrids separately, we found that there was a significant difference between the average yield of the lowest and highest plant densities only in the case of three (DKC 4795, DKC 4995, NK
Cobalt) out of the five hybrids (DKC 4795: 11 757 kg ha-1 – 10 857 ha-1 where LSD5% =816 kg; DKC 4995: 11 794 kg ha-1 – 10 738 kg ha-1 where LSD5%=853kg; NK Cobalt: 10 998 kg ha-1 – 10 019 kg ha-1 where LSD5%=630 kg ha-1), while a  significant difference between the second and third plant densities was observed only in one case (DKC 4995: 11 726 kg ha-1 – 10 738 ha-1 where LSD5%=853 kg). In all other cases, there was no statistical difference between the different
plant densities.

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Comparative analysis on the fertiliser responses of Martonvásár maize hybrids in long-term experiments
Published December 21, 2008
111-117

The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated re...ached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.

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Nutrient and water utilisation analyses of maize on chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment
Published March 20, 2013
77-82

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have conducted our research at the Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen RISF Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences during the cropyears of 2007, 2008 and 2009, on chernozem soil. In the case of crop rotation three models were set (mono-,bi- [wheat, maize] and triculture [pea, wheat, maize]). The five nutrient levels applied during the treatments were as follows: control [untreated], N60P45K45, N120P90K90, N180P135K135, N240P180K180. The conclusion of our results was the following: the crop rotation, the nutrient supply and the amount of precipitation all influenced the quantity of maize yield. As an effect of the increasing nutrient doses yield increase was experienced compared with the control treatments. In the average of the years the highest increase in yield excess/1 kg of NPK fertilizer was measured in the case of the monoculture (13 kg ha-1). As a consequence of is soil extorting effect the monoculture responded more intensively to the nutrient supplementation than the biculture or the triculture in the studied cropyears. In addition, we have observed that the three-year average yield amount per 1 mm precipitation was significantly influenced by the nutrient reserve of the soil. In the monoculture during the control treatment this value was 25 kg mm-1, the value measured in the case of the biculture turned out to be more favourable (42 kg mm-1).

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