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The electronic claiming for the Single Area Payment Scheme (eSAPS) in Hungary: the evaluation of a new system
Published September 2, 2009
61-68

The agricultural subsidies play a crucial role in the policy of the European Union. Remarkable part of the EU budget is dedicated to agriculture and rural development. The enlargement of the EU, the global changes in the market and other challenges are raising the demand for a better and more efficient way of work in the organization, using inf...ormation and communication technologies, and especially the implementation of e-government
services. The article presents the Hungarian electronic claiming system (called eSAPS) for European founds in agriculture, and evaluates the first year of its operation.

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The managerial aspect of the police’s organizational development
Published April 8, 2014
57-62

During my research, I have studied the relationships of the organizational development and the managerial functions at a specific governmental agency, the police. The police carry out official activities, but also provide a service which essentially assumes two types of contact systems and modes of management. To meet the demands of the citizen...s and to ensure the effectiveness of the organization, it is necessary to develop the managerial methods applied at the police, on the one hand, and to use certain parts of the organizational development, on the other hand.

The police organization has changed significantly after the integration of the Police and Border Guards. The complexity of the structure and the anomalies in the work load, as well as several researches conducted by myself directed my attention to elaborate an organizational development method that can be applied to the current organization, while it improves the operation of the organization.

The police’s operation and its organizational structure are determined by the laws, thus changing the structure of the organization is placed within relatively narrow limits. The police managers have the soft parts such as human resource development, skills, and management style at their disposal to develop the organization, but their use is isolated and they are not for a long term. The present article aims to present the set-up model related to the organizational development of the police, elaborated by myself, in terms of the leadership and the management styles, whose long-term use may contribute to the efficiency of the operation.

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The possibilities and framework of conditions of organisational development at a particular administrative body
Published April 8, 2014
63-70

The demand for the recognition, identification and introduction of measures aimed at improving organizational culture and the efficiency of management and leadership plays a crucial role in the life of every organization, including the law enforcement bodies as well. The tasks and responsibilities of the Hungarian Police Force have changed cons...iderably both in terms of quantity and quality since Hungary’s accession into the European Union first, and since the country’s joining the Schengen Zone. We are now facing problems formerly unheard of (e. g. the integration of the police force and the border guard, joining the Schengen Zone, the emergence of new forms of crime). As border control within the Union stopped, organized crime has become more powerful. The changes are by no means over: in order to improve the subjective sense of security of the population and to advance organizational efficiency, a number of changes are being implemented at present. For the internal security of the member states of the Union and for the improvement of the efficiency of police work in the member states, the use of consciously coordinated management methods is indispensable. These efforts are the subject of this essay.

A police force is an partially open system, the work of which is influenced by a number of external processes and factors. The organizational culture of a police force is determined by its traditions on the one hand, and by the demands to develop its functions as an authority and a service provider on the other. It is undeniable that any conscious effort in shaping and developing the organizational culture of the police requires special competences and commitment from the leaders of the organization. Furthermore, it is also necessary to modernize the management tasks. It applies to all the levels of leadership, from the head of a patrol to the supreme commander of the police force.

The organizational scheme of the police force is that of a functional, linear system. Such an organization is characterized by a relatively high degree of inflexibility, a slow and cumbersome reaction to external changes. All these may adversely influence organizational efficiency. It therefore appears to be necessary to examine the present structure of police, and survey the possibilities of modernization. Modernization does not necessarily mean a change in the structure; it may be restricted to changes in organizational culture, the creation of an atmosphere favourable for reforms, and the coordination of diversified structures. In this paper I wish to demonstrate some of the possibilities of improving organizational culture and organization development, based upon the findings of a specific survey.

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Study on the Work Organization at Dairy Farms
Published September 8, 2020
293-296

Joining the European Union Hungarian producers have advantages but they need to solve some problems too. Only those producers can compete who will be able to produce extra quality milk. However the circumstances of milk production are not up to the task.
The author examined the work organization of 7 dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County. Data ...were collected about the situation of farms, equipment of barns, objets of production, work force, qualification of workers, and productivity of work. He examined the applied motivation methods at farms. He concluded that as the number of cows per farm increases work productivity increases too. From the examination it appeared that family farms applied different motivation system from bigger producer organizations. The author put forward proposals for motivation possibilities to improve milk quality, atmosphere, and general feeling of workers.

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Examination of the current and idel organisational culture and leadership elements at the municipalities of the North Great Plain region
Published March 20, 2013
117-125

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The connection between organizational culture and leadership has been examined by several researchers (Schein, Schmircik, Bass) and it is proven that there is a link between them. The leader shapes the organizational culture and at the same time the organizational culture shapes the leader too. The middle managers of local governments place the major emphasis on the dimension of goal orientation for the future. From the leadership perspective they find charismatic, goal and team oriented leadership necessary for the future.

The local governments have to answer the challenges of the rapidly changing environment. Quick responses and adjustments are only possible if the leader possesses a clear future vision and not only sets short-term goals but plans for the future and estimates the necessities on the long run. It is important to have a leadership with utmost dedication to the organization and to the objectives of the organization. The leaders must raise the interests of the employees, involve them in the process of setting goals and in finding ways to meet those goals, and that the employees should no longer strive to realize their own personal ambitions but focus on the common objectives. This brought transformational leadership to light.

The leader establishes and shapes the organizational culture but the individuals and teams working for the organization have impact on the organizational culture as well. This becomes apparent in the organizational culture as middle managers would place the major emphasis on performance orientation. Performance orientation is a dominant motivation based on excellence, hard work, pre-calculated risk, fore planning, goal orientation and regular feedback, which shapes the leadership too, as the leader has to change as well, in order to run the organization.

Scheins’ standpoint reflects the best the relationship between the organizational culture and the leadership. Schein claims that organizational culture and leadership are interwoven phenomena, as the leader shapes the culture but after a while the organizational culture itself shapes the leader too.

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Congruency Analyses in Agricultural Organizations
Published March 4, 2006
56-61

Management is one of the ancient activities. Managerial behaviour helped humans to become sociable creatures. The aims and roles of management have continually changed along with social and economic changes. Some management theories in the early literature interpret the managerial function as „to instruct” and „to control” subordinates.... The manager – having the appropriate authority – unilaterally appoints the expected activities in accordance with the objectives of the organization and his/her own wish. Its form is the instruction or the command.
Later, organizations and management theories defined the managerial function rather as the impact on the employees than (or instead of) a unilateral manifestation of will. These focus on collaboration and imitation instead of on obedience. These theories were based on the fact that the employees work hard to succeed in meeting organizational goals because they want to meet their own needs, desires and wishes.
Today, management means being in a relationship with colleagues, effective and successful working methods and, last but not least, commitment and liability for the company. The responsibilities of directors are to estimate the employees’ competences and to apply the workforce expediently.
In our opinion, the two most important questions of human resource management (HRM) will be:
• the expectations made of the manager by the subordinates,
• the expectations made of the subordinates by the manager.
The expectations of management have continuously evolved along with the social, political and economical improvement. We consider the most important requirements will be the following:
• the exploitation of employees’ abilities (especially the leaders’),
• the exploitation of human resource,
• aim-oriented leadership related to different management levels.
The actual research covers only the examination of managerial requirements. We experienced that the expectations are affected by many factors starting with the fulfillment of a specific task to the social environment as a whole. Managements of the last century did not require such self-reliance, creativity and broad knowledge from their subordinates as they do today. Employees have to be able to adapt to new tasks, technology and methods; have to react quickly against the problems; and be loyal to the company and the manager.
We plan to expand our research backwards as well, in which we will search for the answer what kind of expectations are formulated by subordinates on the manager. Thus, we can approach and reveal the expectations (the examined factors) from two sides.
Due to this method, we would like to work out such coherences which can help us to demonstrate the opinions of the differently qualified employees of the organisations. The applied method provides us facilities to carry it out in various organisational parameters, such as functional form, size, effectiveness, range of activity.

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Labour Efficiency of Dairy Farms with Different Types and Sizes in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published March 4, 2006
62-67

Questions and uncertainties characterised the accession period of Hungary to the European Union. It is evident that only those producers can compete on the market who produce good quality products. Therefore, only dairy farms with extra high quality raw milk production will be successful. Furthermore, on this basis, rural areas will be able to ...keep their inhabitants one of the most important problems presently. The author examined the process of milk production and the labour efficiency of 18 dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County. Mechanization, the quality of the work force and the system of incentives were assessed. Data of produced milk quality were collected too. Because of farms with different types and sizes the circumstances of milk production differ greatly. As a result of data analysis it was found that the working schedule of small and large farms often differed. The most important working processes (milking, feeding, harvesting) are done by family members. In order to increase the efficiency and improve working atmosphere the improvement of wage and incentive systems would be desirable. Labour efficiency indexes show that the efficiency of tie-stall systems is lower than the efficiency of similar size loose-housing systems. It can also be stated; that labour efficiency of similar size loose housing dairies differs greatly so the importance of work-studies should be increased.

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Evaluation of tourism in the Erdőspuszták sub-region
Published May 23, 2006
95-100

The Erdőspuszták sub-region established an Association of Local Municipalities in 1992, 10 settlements of which set up the Erdőspuszták Association in 1995, as a voluntary organization. One third of the settlements in Hajdú-Bihar county are handicapped from an economic or infrastructural point of view.
Tourism has become the most dynami...cally developing industrial sector. Unfortunately, in Hungary and, especially, in the eastern region, this way of earning a living is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, these areas possess such untouched natural values, cultural monuments and unexploited possibilities which could attract tourists.
In my study, the problem is examined from two aspects. First, interviews with mayors are included, consisting of three questions. The leaders of the settlements were first asked about the impact of EU accession, then the most important development plans were mapped and finally the local tourism plans were investigated. Second, I have made an evaluation of each settlement which reviews the infrastructural and environmental conditions, the accommodation and boarding possibilities offered the different tourist attractions and leisure possibilities.
The development of tourism can be an obvious solution to this problem. The toots of tourism entails the creation of job opportunities, the development of infrastructure, the enhancement of living conditions. It has a diverse effect and it contributes to the improvement of living standards in rural areas.
Regarding tourism, it can be stated that each settlement has its own image and value, which the citizens are proud of. It has been realized that collaboration between the settlements could greatly contribute to the development of a tourist programme of several days length, as a result of which the guests would spend more time in the region, which would be beneficial to everybody. My suggestion is that the settlements should work out a plan for the development of tourism jointly, in which they would determine the targets, describe the specific development plans and tasks and elaborate the ideas for the different investments.

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Present situation and future prospects for Hungarian fruit and vegetable sector
Published July 28, 2008
31-38

Changes in people’s lifestyles and the emergence of nutritional science have created favorable opportunities for a boom in fruit and vegetable consumption, which have been fully exploited by the adaptive fruit producer and exporter countries. Unfortunately, Hungary is not one of these countries. Affected by a number of uncertainty factors, th...e Hungarian fruit and vegetable sector has fallen behind international trends, seeking opportunities for survival (Erdész, 2007).
The impacts of the country’s accession to the EU have been more adverse than expected. While no administrative measures are used to control production and the increasing competition and import have put Hungarian producers to a loosing position. The cooperation producers, the well-organized work of professionals and the coordinated activity of producers marketing organizations may resolved some of the problems affecting the sector.
The fruit and vegetable sector can also anticipate significant changes during the new seven-years budget period of the CAP reform.
With the new drat reform of the sector, the European Commission intends to simplify the common organization of the fruit and vegetable market, improve competitiveness, increase market orientation, promote fruit and vegetable consumption and to continue the environmental efforts.
Hungary has had great expectations concerning the reform of market regulation, but the Commission proposal didn’t bear out the expectations, because the new proposal includes insignificant changes in important issues and fails to provide sufficient additional resources for the catching up of he new member states.

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