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The Effect of Grazing on the Production of Sows and Pasture Vegetation
Published May 4, 2004
43-47

In our experiment sows were grased during four grazing seasons, from April 28, 2000 to 23, August, 2001. The same number of indoor sows served as control animals.
The results of the blood test show that, as a result of grazing, the beta carotene level of the blood serum has increased threefold. This difference disappeard after the farrow 30 ...days.
On spring pasture, the grasingsows gained 50 kg in weight as opposed to 30 kg in the control animals. On the poor autumn pasture, the weight gained was only 30 kg, which was only 2 kg more in comparison with the performance of the control group. In the third grasing season the experiment sows weight gained was 13.7 kg and control group 37 kg. In the fourth season the control group weight gained was 4.4 kg more in comparison with the performance of the experiment sows.
Grazing not very influence weight of gthe sows during the preast – feeding.

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Polymorphism of the bovine GH and LEP genes in a population of Slovak spotted bulls
Published November 20, 2011
19-23

The aim of this study was the detection of polymorphism in the bovine growth hormone and leptin genes using the PCR-RFLP method. A
polymorphic site of the growth hormone gene (Alul loci) that results in amino acid change at position 127 of the protein chain (leucine, L to
valine, V) has been linked to differences in circulating metabolite...s, metabolic hormones and to milk yield. The polymorphism in bovine leptin
gene is situated in the intron between two exons, which results in an amino acid change at position 2059 of the protein chain (cytosine, C to
thymine, T). The polymorphisms were studied in a group of 58 bulls of the Slovak spotted breed. A strategy employing PCR was used to amplify 428 bp (GH gene) and 422 bp (LEP gene) products from blood samples. Digestion of PCR products with restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI revealed alleles: L and V; A and B for GH gene and LEP gene, respectively. The growth hormone gene is a candidate gene for body weight gain in cattle, since it plays a fundamental role in growth regulation. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of feed intake, energy metabolism, growth and reproduction of cattle; therefore, animals with higher leptin gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and will also likely have longer calving intervals. 

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72
102
Grain yield and quality of maize hybrids in different FAO maturity groups
Published October 5, 2010
126-131

An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to ...diseases.
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.

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42
86
Effect of soil-compost proportion on the abiotic and biotic parameters of soilplant system
Published December 15, 2010
99-104

The environmental awareness, coming to the front in the 21st century, motivates us to supply the plant nutrient demand (in point of the plant, the environment and the human health) with natural materials.
Composting is known since the beginning of civilization. We came to know more the processes of composting as a result of last d...ecades’ research, but numerous unexplained questions remained up to this day. The good compost is dark gray or brown, and it should not create an odor. It has aggregate structure, and it’s pH is neutral. Compost is soil-like (Fehér, 2001), nutrient-rich material, which contains valuable nutrients extracted from soil, so if we recycle this, we can decrease the chemical fertilizer and other (example: mineral energy) expenses.
The reason of that we chose the more accurate cognition of compost utilization is to do more effective the site-specific nutrient supply. This increases the average yield and the quality of yield. Besides we can decrease the harmful effects, which endanger the plant, the environment, and the human body.
During the compost utilization experiment we blended the  acid sandy soil with compost in 4 different volumetric proportions (5 treatments) than we set the pots randomized. The advantage of this method is that we can provide equal conditions for plants so we can measure the effect of  treatments correctly. Our experimental plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), that grows rapidly, tolerates the glasshouse conditions, and indicates the effect of treatments well. After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested leaves and the total C-, N-, S-content of the dry matter and of the soil, we examined the pH and the salt concentration of  soil as well. 
Our aim was to study and evaluate the relations between the compost-soil proportion and the nutrient content of soil and plant. In our previous experiments we confirmed (based on variance analyses) that the compost has a beneficial effect on soil and increases the nutrient content of the soil (Szabó, 2009). But it’s important to appoint that the compound of compost is seasonally change: in winter the selective gathered municipal solid waste contains salt that were applied for non-skidding of roads, but salt has a negative effect to the plant. We proved that in our experiment the 25/75% compost/soil proportion was ideal for the plant. This content of compost effected 6 times higher green matter weight compared to the 100% sandy soil. 

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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
65-70
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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Production and economic risk analysis of pig fattening
Published April 8, 2014
171-176

I prepared a “model farm” producing fattening pigs in order to examine the main risk of production and market factors affecting the profitability of fattening pig production. Values of body weight (at the beginning of fattening and at the end of fattening), mortality rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fattening pig as well as the main cos...t and price data were recorded as the input data of the model. Production value per unit, production cost per unit and income per unit were used as output. The Monte-Carlo simulation was used in the model for risk assessment. Based on the results of the analysis, it was concluded that the production value per unit was most affected by the selling price of fattening pig (ß=0.972), the production cost per unit were most influenced by the body weight at the beginning of fattening (ß=0.567) and the feed conversion ratio (ß=0.537), in addition, the change of the income per unit was most determined by the previously factors.

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Associations analysis of production traits with leptin gene T3469C polymorphisms in pig
Published February 10, 2013
39-43

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to define the connection between the leptin (LEP) gene T3469C polymorphism and its potential association with production traits in improved hybrid pigs. The study included data from 397 gilts and barrows from 2 different sample. The polymorphism was identified by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method with HinfI restriction enzyme. Two alleles of LEP gene were identified: T (0.93) an C (0.07). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on LEP genotype did not reveal significant (P≤0.05) differences. In the examination the loin diameter (between the 2nd and 3rd ribs), the live weight at slaughter and the averege daily gain during fattening were higher at pigs with C allele than pigs with TT genotipe. Accordingt to our data the effect of C allele was favourable in this population, because these animals had bigger bodyweight without valuable change of lean meat percent.

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Influences of different organic fertilizers on nutrients of humic sandy soil and on the growth of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
Published October 24, 2016
23-28

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was condu...cted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.

On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.

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