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The comparison of sperm motility and density in four different goldfish (Carassius auratus) types
135-140

Different goldfish types play an important role both in ornamental fish farming and science. Considering its historical background, the goldfish is a suitable model animal for the study of artificial selection as well as for developmental biological studies. Sperm motility and cell density is an important parameter in determining sperm quality. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of different goldfish types on the sperm quality. Several sperm motility parameters (progressive motility (pMOT, %), straight line velocity (VSL, μm s-1), curvilinear velocity (VCL, μm s-1), linearity (LIN, %), amplitude lateral Head Displacement (ALH, μm), Beat Cross Frequency (BCF, Hz)) of four different goldfish types (Common goldfish-“wild type” N=5, Shubunkin N=4, Black Moor N=4, Oranda N=5) was compared during 60 hours (at 12-hour intervals) at refrigerated storage (4 °C). The variability of sperm density was also investigated in all types. A similar cell concentration was determined in the four goldfish variants (Common goldfish 2.01*1010 ± 3.46*109; Shubunkin 1.71*1010 ± 3.25*109; Black Moor 1.66*1010 ± 3.02*109; Oranda 1.56*1010 ± 5.83*109). Statistically significant difference between the 4 goldfish types in the motility parameters and cell density was not noted. However, a decreasing tendency in Black Moor sperm motility parameters (pMOT, VCL and VSL) was observable, as well as a reduced spermatozoa density in Oranda was also recorded. Our results can contribute to the improvement of the common hatchery propagation of goldfish. Future studies can add more evidence of the possible effects of artificial selection on the reproduction in different goldfish types.

 

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Relationships of the sport and the life quality in the University of Debrecen
87-96

In the sport- life of the University of Debrecen there has been a demand formulated on the making of a comprehensive, long-term development plan, which obviously incorporates all
fields of sport. This document guides the way for people in the sport- life of the university how they could organise their activities connected with sport on a calculable, predictable level.
Necessarily, the preliminary collection of professional informations has been a basic requirement for the establishment of this document.
The program provides foreseeable instructions to the organisation of sport pursuits both for sport people in the university, and members of the sport spehere in a wider sense. It
offers a cohesive solution for all kinds of tasks defined with the sport life, and also gives a guidance for the various ways of realisations of these challenges. Thus it can answer such questions as for example how the university can conduce the initation of conditions for the healthy living through spare time sporting, how it can participate in the financing of contest sport with the contributing project of reinforcement training and how the university can support the sport life of handicapped people. The project also contributes to the cultivation of the sport traditions of the university by bankrolling not only the official university sport
life but also the leisure time sporting of the students.
On the basis of rethinking the situation of sport at the university with its future possibilities the program paraphrases the tasks of the university in the sport life, the long term aims of
university sport politics with its operative aims that should be performed and also the possible steps which lead to these purposes.
The target of the project is to turn the University of Debrcen in every field into a “Sporting University”. It means, that beyond the development of quality sport and outstanding contest sport a much wider range of university people should be included in sporting in order to utilize all the advantages of sport. With this the physical culture could become not only a substantial form of spending our free time, but with getting one of our natural everyday activities it can also become our lifestyle.
Sporting prominently contributes to both the university students’s and the whole society’s mental and physical wellfare, and it also helps to improve our helthstate on various fields of life:
with its special functions it is a means for establishing a healthy nation, for promoting common relationships, for nourishing the economic activity of people and also for strengthening the national values and one’s self-esteem through providing equal opportunities.
The prosperousity of contest sport at the university and the maintaining and protesing of its efficiency fortifies our selfregard, as it is able to hold appropriate sportsmen up as examples
to both present and future universtity students, and also offers exacting ways of entertainment. Besides all these the advataged purpose of the project is to find and delibaretaly include those
necessary mechanisms which are needed for the working of the sport market.

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Testing the antimicrobial activity of essential oils
71-74

The vapor phase of some essential oils proved to have antimicrobial activity. Utilization of the vapor phase of Eos is presently understood as one of the possible alternatives to synthetic food preservatives which could be used in the future. However, testing the vapor phase of EOs against microorganisms causing food-borne diseases (e.g. Salmonella enteritidis or Staphylococcus aureus) or food spoilage is relatively new. Consequently, due to the large number of known EOs, research on their antimicrobial activity is still largely in the phase of in vitro rather than in vivo testing. Moreover, no standard and reliable method for fast screening of a wide range of samples exists. Thus, the aim of this study is to show results concerning tests of the antimicrobial activity of EOs against S. enteritidis or S. aureus, which were conducted by two modifications of the disc volatilization method we developed. The lately developed method has the potential to become widely used for fast screening of EO antimicrobial activity in the vapor phase.

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Quality comparison of selected apple cultivars under ULO-storage
62-75

Our examination was carried out in the 103 ha apple orchard of the Kasz-Coop Ltd.. The plantation works with modern varieties standing on M9 root stock, planted in a tree density of 2500 tree/ha and treated with professional integrated technology. The date of harvest is defined by a combination of several ripening analyses methods. The orchard has its own ULO-system warehouse.
Used in the experiment were four apple varieties: ’Idared’, ’Golden Reinders’, ’Jonagold’ and ’Braeburn’.
While under ULO-storage, we took 20-25 piece samples 6 times regarding the four varieties, from which 5-5 pieces were kept under three weeks’ shelf life, measured on a weekly bases. In our research, we analysed the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life, and the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric value under ULO-storage.
Analyses were based on the following measurements: flesh firmness, refractometric value and number of mature seeds.
We looked for morphological and morphological-quality correlations.
Through these we described the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life for each variety. We referred to the stability of these attributes and to the dynamics of their change. Later, with the help of these, and also considering our practical experience related to the measurements, we characterised the four varieties.
We found a positive correlation between the seed number and the flesh firmness in the case of the ‘Idared’, ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Braeburn’ varieties, but no correlation was found in the case of ‘Golden Reinders’ in this concern. We visualized the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric values under ULO-storage. This allowed us to categorise the varieties.

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Potential use of bamboo in the phytoremediation in of heavy metals: A review
91-97

There are many literature sources focusing on the phytoremediation of woody plants, but there are only few dealing with the phytoremediation of bamboo plants. Phytoremediation technology has the advantages of little disturbance to the environment and low remediation cost. Bamboo mainly exists in tropical and subtropical regions. As an energy plant, bamboo has a fast growth cycle, large biomass, simple cultivation, high economic efficiency, and convenient harvesting, which highlights the advantages of bamboo in phytoremediation. In addition, bamboo plants have good tolerance and uptake ability to heavy metals and have high application potential and development value in uptaking heavy metal contaminated soil. However, due to climate, temperature and other reasons, bamboo cannot be widely planted in most countries. Research status of remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by bamboo plants is summarized. The feasibility of its application in heavy metal contaminated soil is discussed in this paper. Aiming at the shortcomings of existing research, bamboo plants have a prospect in the field of plant phytoremediation for the future.

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Life in two countries but one home land – Béla Lipthay (1892-1974) the entomologist
12-23

Béla Lipthay lepidopterologist, entomologist, museologist, agriculturist, hussar lieutenant, life-saving Roman Catholic, descendant of the historical family Lipthay de Kisfalud et Lubelle did a long way from his home village Lovrin to Szécsény, the one-time land of his ancestors. His life coincided with the disintegration of the historical Hungary, and the most serious trials of the Hungarian society, culture and spirit. These changes affected him as a member of Hungarian aristocracy many times and in fact wanted to destroy him. The fortune of the ancestors have been swept away by the storms of the wars and confiscated but the human strength of character, the consciousness, the talent, the diligence, the sanctuary of faith have remained. All these made him possible to survive, to do his everyday hard creative work, which gained him affection and respect of the people living around him.

Lipthay Béla was mainly lepidopterist and dealt with the the species of Hungary. Place of his collection was first his native country, the Banat, and the area of the Southern Carpatian Montain, and after 1944 Nógrád county (Szécsény, Balassagyarmat, Nógrádszakál, Ipolytarnóc, Rimóc, Ludányhalászi etc.). The collected species belonged to Macrolepidoptera but he dealt also with the moths. During his life time he prepared a collection of 60000 individuals and maintained them until his passing away. Great part of this collection can be found at the zoological cabinet of Natural History Museum in Budapest. He discovered many species new for the Hungarian fauna such as e.g. Cupido osiris (Meigen, 1829), and described a new species (Chamaesphecia sevenari Lipthay, 1961) which later proved to be a synonym of Chamaesphecia nigrifrons (Le Cerf, 1911). He knew well the most famous collectors and specialists of the age. After the first World War he worked together with Frigyes König, László Diószeghy, Jenő Teleki, Norman D. Riley (leading entomologist of the British Museum at London, secretary of the Royal Entomological Society), Brisbane C. S. Warren ( member of the Royal Entomological Society), Lionel W. Rothschild (the most important private collector) and many excellent lepidopterists. After the second World War he was well known and respected by the Hungarian entomologists and lepidopterists: he was a friend of Lajos Kovács, the distinguished lepidopterist and Zoltán Kaszab, the eminent entomologist. He had a good relationship with such renowned Hungarian zoologists and entomologists like Gyula Éhik, László Gozmány, László Issekutz, László Bezsilla and László Móczár. He colleted also Hymenoptera, Diptera and capricorn beetles to be found in Hungarian and foreign collections Natural History Museum, (London), a Szekler National Museum (Marosvásárhely). He dealt with agricultural entomology because he was an experienced agriculturist as far as he had the opportunity to do that. He painted wonderful agricultural entomology posters and organized expositions e.g. on the pests of industrial crops and hunting at Balassagyarmat and Salgótarján.

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The dynamics of biodiversity structure of soil microorganisms under the impact of biopreparations during potato growing season
67-74

The use of biological preparations such as Phytotsid and Planryz contributes the increase of the general number of soil bacteria population by 13.0–36.1% in the case of potato variety Scarbnytsya and by 4.5–24.6% for potato variety Oberig compared with control. It also increases the number of saprophyte microflora, which compete with plant pathogens, micromycetes, and causes 1.2–1.8 times reduction in the number of soil fungi – Fusarium and Alternaria. During the application of Rovral Akvaflo the Shannon ecological index of species biodiversity is lower than during the biopreparation use. The decrease of species biodiversity was observed as well as strengthening the dominance of some species (dark pigmentation in fungi).

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Examinations connected with productive life in Hungarian Holstein Friesian populations
32-39

In Hungary, an intensive dairy population has developed in the last few decades as the result of upgrading to Holstein-Friesian. Intensive milk production, adjusted with housing and feeding, unfavorably affected secondary traits. The number of days between two calvings has increased remarkably and productive lifetime has decreased drastically. In the interest of profitable milk production, it is important that cows should be able to stay in the herd as long as possible, in order to have great lifetime productivity.
The aim of this paper was to compare the production and pedigree of cows with eight or more lactations to cows which were culled after their first lactation.
It can be stated that cows with longer herd lives produced more milk in their first lactation than those which were culled after their first lactation. When analyzing the pedigree effect of sires, this could not be proven, although some bulls, mainly of Hungarian origin, appeared at a higher frequency. In the analysis of the effect of dams, it was found that many of the offspring of the cows with longer herd lives had similarly great lifetime productivity. Correlation between herdlife and milk production quantity traits was found to be mild or stronger (r>0,60), while according to our analysis, there is no correlation between herdlife and milk production quality traits.

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Evaluation of the relationship between main type traits and longevity in Hungarian Simmental cows
205-209

The Hungarian Simmental cattle is a dual-purpose breed, having good milk and meat production characteristics. Simmental cows have some other important traits, for example, a longer productive life. The longevity or productive life is the time period between first calving and culling. The conformation contributes to productive life, reproduction, and milk production.

The aims of this study were to analyze the longevity of Hungarian Simmental dual-purpose cows, to evaluate the effects of the size of the herd, age at first calving, main type traits (frame, musculature, feet and legs, mammary system), and combination of main type traits (frame and musculature, feet and legs and mammary system).

Animal, age at first calving, herd*calving, musculature, the mammary system as well as the combination of mammary system and feet and legs were significant effects on longevity. The highest risk ratio was observed for cows first calved after 31 months. The risk of culling increased with increasing scores of musculature and decreasing scores of the mammary system. The highest risk ratio was estimated in category 11 (lower scores of mammary system with lower scores of feet and legs). In this case, the risk ratio was 36% higher than the reference group.

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Possibilities of Weed Beet (Beta vulgaris, L. ssp. marritima) Regulation
133-136

Weed infestation regulation in sugar beet belongs to the most difficult growing measures, the aim of our work was to find out, if active substances contained in preparations Roundup and Fazor influence number, weight and germination of clusters in plants of weed beets. Statistically significant differences in germinability were found among control and all variants in which preparation Fazor was applied. The Roundup treatment did not have significant influence on germination. Presented results are only preliminary and one-year results, more experiments are necessary to determine the effects of the studied applications.

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The social basis of regional development in the North Great Plain Region
57-65

It is a widely accepted practice in the European Union to break down countries into regions according to their stage of development, their cultural and economic characteristics. The basis of this methodology is the EU-conform MOTS system, which distinguishes territorial units on five levels. Besides the MOTS system, Hungary uses another system, too, which is the basis of our public administration, and whose roots go back to the times of King Saint Stephen: the county system. In Hungary, developmental decisions are taken by a county’s general assembly; at the same time, from an economic point of view the characteristics and competitive advantages of a county can be defined more precisely than those of a region.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County and Hajdu-Bihaur County may be described with completely different characteristics, albeit both of them are part of the North Great Plain Region. On a county level economically important and justified developmental areas may be mapped more precisely.

Hajdu-Bihar County is the 4th most populous county in Hungary. With 80.2% of the population living in cities, the county is significantly urbanized. 2010 statistics show that the birth rate per 1,000 people in the county is practically the same as the birth rate of the country and that of the North Great Plain Region. Following the trends in developed countries, mothers now tend to give birth in an older age. Almost half (44.5%) of the children in Hajdu-Bihar County are born after their mother’s 30th birthday.

The general health condition of the population of Hajdu-Bihar County can be described with various indicators. In terms of medical and hospital care no difference can be observed between regional and national data, the county’s health care does not straggle behind. In sum, with the health care system of the county, estimated life expectancy of men is higher than the regional average, and in case of women it is higher than both the regional and national average, according to the given year’s mortality.

Children’s ratio among the county’s population is 15.9%, which is more than 1% over the national average. The ratio is higher in case of girls and boys alike. The income of the county’s population depends not only on labour income but also on social benefits. According to the analysis, the proportion of old-age pensioners and those receiving pension-like allowances within the whole population is somewhat lower in the county than the national average. The number of children receiving child-welfare and daytime care is prominent in the county.

The number of families and children receiving child-care allowance has not changed significantly in recent years. All important elements of social benefits have increased in the last decade. The quality of life of the county’s population is largely affected by the presence (or absence) of basic infrastructure in their environment. Research conducted at the settlements of the county shows that currently the greater part of the population has access to basic public utility services which form part of everyday services. Although they affect the general quality of life, the network of roads and passenger traffic have their real significance in terms of economic development. The county’s modern, paved road-system had already been built earlier.

Roads and pavements in inner-city areas have been paved up to 70%. The technical condition of roads and pavements can seriously impede the population’s mobility and it may hinder the development of certain settlements and districts.

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Findings on the cultivation of potatoes in organic farming
113-116

This paper explores the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato production in the Czech Republic. The mulching with chopped grass (GM) and black textile mulch (BTM) were compared to non-mulching control variant (C) with mechanical cultivation. Especially in plots with BTM were first formed ridges and covered by the black polypropylene non-woven textile and then they were planting. During vegetation the infestation of Colorado potato beetle (CPB), weeds biomass, course of soil temperature and soil water potential were assessed. The results showed that surface of GM had a positive effect on soil temperature reduction, soil water potential depression. This study also indicated a positive effect of GM on the larvae of CPB diminution, on the other hand higher incidence of larvae and higher defoliation was observed in BTM. GM had a significant effect on the yield of potatoes. The yield of ware potatoes was higher by 27 % higher on plots with GM and by 16 % lower on plots wit BTM in comparison with C. NeemAzal T/S decreased statistically significantly % of defoliation and increased yield of ware potatoes by 35 % in comparison with control.

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Renewable energy strategy in Hungary
101-104

The price of energy determinates our daily life. It is very necessary that we make energy strategy such as effective in everyday life, furthermore appoint a predictable development path. In these energy strategies the renewable energy and the energy efficiency is highlighted. This article describes about relevant pledges from recent years and possible improvements.

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The role of type traits of dairy cattles in long productive life
11-18

In the last few decades, a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Additionally, the reproduction biology of the population was adversely affected by keeping and feeding technologies. Productive lifetime has shortened and the service period has lengthened. However, profitable milk production requires cows with longer productive lives and larger life-time productions. In our study, we made a comparison between production, culling causes, and type traits of culled Holstein Friesian cows after first calving and of cows with a minimum of eight lactations. We established that the first lactation production of cows with longer productive lives was more or less homogeneous. Disease of metabolism as well as digestive and respiratory problems, were the main causes of the culling of cows with short productive lives, and reproduction and udder problems as well as low production, were the main causes of the culling of cows with long productive lives. We found a significant difference in the distributions of strength, body depth, dairy form, croup width, rear leg side view, foot angle, fore udder attachment and teat placement between the two groups. Furthermore, we established that cows with lower stature, less strength, a somewhat deeper body, better dairy form, narrower croup width, smaller foot angle, looser fore udder attachment and some outside teat placement had longer productive lives.

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Environmental inspection agro tech – guarantee sustainable development agricultural systems
41-42

Shown the expediency of the environmental expertise technologies of growing crops in terms of impact on soil fertility, crop phytosanitary status, quality, chemicals migration, biological soil activity, crop productivity, which ensure avoidance of adverse impact on the environment and human health.

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Dilemma of interpreting the Tisza space in regional dimensions
169-171

This study deals with the evaluation of an especially important area, since the Tisza river is the basis of the spatial organisation of the Great Plain, the main spatial structural axis of Eastern Hungary and also its ecologic corridor of continental significance. The Tisza is a river which connects five countries to each other and it has an enormous catchment area. Its longest section can be found in Hungary. Two million people live directly in the spatial environment of the river. The safety and favourable quality of life of these people have to be provided. This is a great challenge from the aspect of regional development, economic, technological improvement, the acceleration of innovation processes, as well as the establishment of natural and environmental harmony.

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Analysis of longevity in Holstein Friesian cattle using proteomic approaches
21-25

The aim of the present study was to determine marker proteins those are associated with functional longevity of dairy cattle. Holstein-Friesian cows were grouped based on their performance as follows: group 1) individuals with good longevity traits; group 2) short production life because of poor reproduction traits; group 3) short production life with low milk yield. Twelve individuals were sampled in each group, blood and milk samples were collected from cows. Blood samples were analysed with two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLCMS/MS. The milk samples were analysed with MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-MS/MS. Using the optimized gel based proteomic approach,
we have succesfully separated 143 proteins in the group1, 139 proteins in the group2 and 136 proteins in the group3, but we could not find significant differences between groups in the expression pattern. Using MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-IonTrap MS, we have found eleven protein sequences those were expressed only in the samples of good longevity group.

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Overview of the evolutionary history and the role in citric acid production of alternative oxidase
83-88

All organisms are exposed to countless environmental effects, which influence in a disadvantageous way their life processes. They continuously adapt to the changing conditions and respond to the stress impacts by defence mechanisms. Through different signal transduction pathways they are able to increase or decrease the expression of their genes and consequently modify their metabolic processes. My interest focuses on alternative oxidase (AOX) enzyme whose expression is often increased under biotic and abiotic stress. The so far proven and putative functions of the AOX play a role in the ability of organisms to adapt to different conditions, such as heavy metals accumulation, pathogenic infection, oxidative stress and lack of oxygen or nutrients.

AOX is a member of the di-iron carboxylate protein family. Members of the di-iron carboxylate protein family are present in all kingdoms of life. They are considered to have ancient origin. It is believed that their sulfide-resistant and oxygen-reducing ability played a role in the survival of organisms during the transition between the anaerobic and the aerobic world. It is assumed that the AOX arose in eukaryotes through a primary endosymbiotic event, and this event made possible the development of mitochondria. Afterwords, vertical inheritance, and secondary and tertiary endosimbiotic events led to its spread among eukaryotes. It is assumed that bacteria obtained AOX by horizontal gene transfer from plants.

AOX-catalyzed alternative respiration plays an important role in the operation of energy-producing and biosynthesizing system of microorganisms. In these cases, the regeneration of reduced cofactors is an essential condition, and therefore may be rate-limiting for biotechnological processes, including the citric acid production.

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Development of the reproductive tract of immature gilts
165-166

Mechanisms of regulation of litter size in pigs are complex and depend on many factors, including genetic regulation and also physiological and anatomical development of the reproductive tract in gilts. Improvement of growth rate in present breed pigs raises the question as to whether, with the development of the reproductive tract, sexual maturity would also be attained.
The aim of the study was to assess the morphometric traits of reproductive tracts taken from gilts slaughtered at 100 kg body weight, i. e., just when they may become actively sexual mature.
This study was concluded on 80 prepubertal gilts of the Polish Landrace (PL) breed tested at the Pig Program Testing Station. The animals were kept in individual pens with control feeding and standard management. They were slaughtered after attaining 100 kg body weight. Immediately after slaughter, the reproductive tract was removed and carefully assessed. The morphometric estimation of the reproductive tract involved the
measurement of uterus weight with ligament, vagina-cervix length, uterine horns and oviducts length, ovaries weight, height and width. Uterus volume capacity was also determined, based on volumetric method of Kwaśnicki’s (1951) with own modification.
All pigs were divided into three groups in respect to age at slaughter: A – below 160 days (n=38), B – from 160 to 180 days (n=28) and C – above 180 days of age (n=14). The results were elaborated statistically computing the arithmetic means (x) for every traits and standard deviations (s). One-way analysis of variance ANOVA was performed. The significance of differences between age groups was estimated using Duncan’s test.
Calculations were performed with STATISTICA 8PL Software.
Obtained results are presented in the tables below. The most pronounced differences in the development of the reproductive tract are dependent on the age of gilts concerning only the uterus weight (P≤0.01) and uterus vagina-cervix length (P≤0.05). Gilts at age 160-180 days attained the full stage of reproductive tract development. Differences between the compared age groups of gilts dealing with the other morphometric traits
and ovary characteristics were statistically not significant.

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Physiological plasticity of main tree species of lowland hornbeamoak forest as a results of forest gap regeneration
99-103

Specific leaf area (SLA) of English oak (Quercus robur L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) as members of Querco robori-Carpinetum were investigated in two different habitat in terms of gap forest management: in the gap and in the inert forest. The artificial opening process of the forest resulted in more light for growing saplings and need for acclimatization. Photosynthesis is one of the most important ways for plant life and plant production basically influenced by altered light condition resulted in opening process. Efficient photosynthesis is important for plant life, plant production, but species-dependent plasticity of photosynthesis makes one species more tolerant, than others. The specific leaf area is acceptable parameters for characterising plant production, dry matter content and leaf structure. The dry matter content based on known leaf area is higher in oak both sun and shade leaves, than hornbeam. The different place of leaves in the canopy of trees did not influence the values of SLA.

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Supplementary botanical examinations for modelling the grass production of the great pasture of Hajdúbagos
17-21

Our botanical survey at the great pasture of Hajdúbagos is a part of a broad research that aims to predict the production of the grass at the given area. As the mentioned pasture is a nature conservation area, the usage of artificial fertilizers or other classic grassland management methods in its handling are prohibited. Thus grazing is an important tool for the management of this area, however the not suitably regulated grazing order and the poorly calculated carrying capacity cause serious problems at some parts of the pasture. The prediction of the grass yield is essential to
avoid both over- and both under-grazing and for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and the grazing method, thus the most suitable management strategy.
The potential grass yield is easily calculable with a computer model that will be established as a basis for determining the grass production. For the sake of getting an accurate view of the plant associations of the pasture, we created examination quadrates and determined all plant species found in the quadrates. After plant determination, we compiled a coenological table in which we marked besides the scientific name and families, the life forms of each species that refer to the structure, morphology and thus the adaptability of plants to their environment. We determined the
TWR, so the thermoclimate, water and soil reaction values, the nature conservation values, as well as the covering values of each plant species (DB), and the total coverage of the examination quadrates (B%).
According to the covering values, grasses proved to be characteristic plants at the examined pasture, thus we need to consider them influential in calculating the animal carrying capacity and with the rest of the information, we need to supply the model.
The life forms and TWR indicators, all together with the nature conservation values provide further important data to the development of the management suggestion of the protected pasture. By examining these values to different parts of the area, we could get an exact view on the measure of the degradation effects. This promotes the determination of grazing methods and the forming of the boundaries of certain pasture sections, to avoid  those harmful anthropogenic effects that seriously endanger this extensive sandy pasture. 

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Evaluation of Origin and Conformation of Excellent Cows with Long Productive Lives
13-17

In the last few decades a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Beside this reproduction biology of the population was affected adversely by the keeping-, and feeding technology. Serviceable lifetime has shortened and service period has lenghtened. Whereas profitable milk production needs cows with longer productive life, larger life-time production. In our work we analysed the productivity-, and reputation parameters of the 200 highest lifetime-productivity cows of Hungary. We found that inheritance has not got important role in the serviceable lifetime. Adaptability and good constitution of Holstein-friesian is proved by the fact that cows with large life-time production are reared in large plants, some of them in large stocks, industrial environment. We found during the analysis of reputation parameters that these prominent cows mostly have deeper body, higher dairy form, higher rear udder, smaller foot angle. We found some weak connection between the milk production and the reputation. Loose correlations between useful material content and some linear traits were found.

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Use of molecular marker methods in the classification of bamboo taxa: A review
51-59

Bamboo plants are currently attractive to researchers because of their versatile uses. Understanding the bamboos’ genetic level is needed to develop new varieties. Taxonomic identification is the basis for plant development. Bamboos were identified as their taxonomical morphological characters which are dependent on environmental factors. Molecular Marker techniques can be used to perform accurate genotype identification, which can be used for genetic diversity analyses. The RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR, iPBS, SCARS, SCoT, SRAP marker systems have been shown to be able to efficiently determine the genetic diversity of bamboo species based on genotyping. This paper summarizes research that aims to analyze the genetic diversity of bamboo species on a molecular basis.

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The supply of Liget-Thermal Spa and Experience Bath, according the opinion of the guests
199-205

During the last decades health, body and soul control became important issues. In the modern world this values are closely connected to the term of success, because we can be successful in every aspect of life: work, and personal life, if we can maintain our health, and fitness in a long run. From that comes that modern people are willing to spend money and time to take an active part in sporty but relaxing activities in a healthy environment in order to keep their fitness or just feel themselves well.
In my study I will show the main motivating factors and demand elements of wellness and healthtourism, according the opinions of the visitors of Liget - Thermal Spa and Experience Bath. I will introduce different services that are suitable for satisfying this demand, furthermore we can get an insight by the results of questionnaire survey, how the motivating factors and the demand changes in case of different age groups.

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The Effect of Changes in Forest Area on the Transcarpathian Tisza River Basin
181-185

Forests are unique global factors which ensure life for almost every living being on Earth. They play a major role in controlling water flows, preventing erosion and controlling the oxygen content of Earth’s atmosphere. By the end of the XXth century, it was realized that forests help to nature maintain and are vital parts of our natural environment. By the time societies realized this fact, economic and environmental effects had amplified which endanger forests. Due to their good water control and water protection abilities, and their function in climate control, mountain forests can provide a suitable environment for themselves, for their successful growth.
Forests play a major role in soil protection, especially in mountain areas where they prevent soil erosion. By converting surface waters into subsurface waters, forests help with the accumulation of subsurface waters, which are the sources of springs, rivers and streams. In the summer, they protect the soil from drying out by creating a special microclimate. They positively affect the climate of surrounding territories.

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