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Characterization of Water Resources in Transcarpathia
Published December 6, 2005
277-281

Transcarpathia is located in one of the wettest parts of the Ukraine. There are 9429 rivers and creeks in the county with a total length of 19.86 thousand kilometers. The length of 152 rivers exceeds 10 km, 4 exceed 100 km (Tisza, Latorca, Ung and Borsava rivers). The average density of rivers is 1.7 km/km2, which is the highest in the Ukraine.... The existing water resources are distributed unevenly in the county. The river with the greatest mass of water is the Tisza. Tisza carries 75% of all existing water resources, the remaining 25% is made up of the water in the river Ung and Latorca. Disregarding the uneven distribution of water resources, 80% of water is used up in the basins of the rivers Ung and Latorca from the water resources of the county, which leads to the overload of rivers.
The main sources of water supply in Transcarpathia: subsurface waters – for the population of cities and settlements, surface and subsurface waters – for the industry, surface waters – for irrigation.
In the interest of protecting existing water resources, it is required to follow current regulations, detecting and averting contaminating sources and establishing water conservation zones.

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Circumstances of the establishment of the Eastern Main Channel, water utilisation problems and alternatives
Published July 18, 2012
79-84

After hundreds of years of drought in the area of Hortobágy and its surroundings brought up the idea of building a channel in Tiszántúl. It started with the idea of an irrigation canal but it ended up in a canal with high importance which can be used in many ways. Because of financial problems the necessary renovations cannot be achieved, an...d as a side effect the amount of silt in the water started to increase, water exploitation started to decrease, and the construction works started to get spoiled. Guided by the Water Directive the East Main Channel has become one of the most significant surface water base in Hungary. To use its water as drinking water brings up a few questions, like solving the pollution problems which problems have already occured. If we want the East Main Channel to be a solution for a long time, further steps and researches are needed to solve the problem of diverting the huge amount of precipitation of the last few years and miantaining the quality of drinking water.

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Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015
Published September 5, 2018
389-398

Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015 Water quality in the surface streams is influenced by several factors. One of important information which can help us to solve problems with quality of water in water body is a distribution of point and non-point pollution sources in a river basin and also amount of p...ollutants released from them to surface streams. An example of a point source of pollution is the outlet from wastewater treatment plants (industry, urban areas, farms, etc.). On the other hand the most significant non-point source of pollution is considered the application of fertilizers in agriculture.

In this paper we have evaluated consumption of organic and industrial fertilizers in Slovakia in the period 2006–2015. Total (in tonnes) and average (in kg ha-1) consumption of industrial and organic fertilizers was analyzed. In monitored period, the amount of applied organic fertilizers was much higher than the amount of applied industrial fertilizers and in addition a significant part of total fertilizers consumption had nitrogenous fertilizers in a group of industrial fertilizers. In a group of industrial fertilizers during the period 2006–2015 we observed just moderately increasing in their consumption, while in the period 2010–2015 the average amount of applied industrial fertilizers per hectare of agricultural land increased by about 20 kg ha-1. On the other hand, in a group of organic fertilizers we observed a decreasing in consumption of fertilizers.

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Comparative Study on Different Water Bodies and their Sediments
Published December 22, 2010
17-21

Hungary is rich in natural water resources, therefore investigation of these biotopes is an important task. The Szarvas- Kákafok deadarm is the largest horse-shoe lake of the Tiszántúl, its lenght is 28 km. It has an important role in recreation and agricultural utilization. The quality of the deadarm is influenced by the river Körös, but ...also by communal and agricultural pollution. Our goals were to estimate the intensity of the
sedimentation processes, and the water- and the sediment quality as well. Also, we examined an artificial wetland system, constructed by the Fish Culture and Irrigation Research Institute, Szarvas.
The calculated sedimentation was 0.4-0.5 cm year-1, which indicated an intensive eutrophication process. The constructed wetland system was able to decrease the organic load of the intensive fish culture company. On the basis of our TOC measurements, the organic matter content of the effluent water remained whitin the water quality limits.
The changes of the material cycling could be more intense in the water body, then in the sediment. The oxido-reduction potential of the sediment could indicate the ecological state of the shallow lakes, therefore it could be an easily measurable indicator in the water classification.

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Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
Published December 10, 2002
62-74

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu...nctions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

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Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils
Published May 11, 2003
85-89

The soil constitutes the basis of the food chain. To keep soil conditions in a good trim is very important, it’s part of the sustainable development and of producing food supply harmless to health.
In some cases, soil productivity is the only important part, qualitative requirements or economical characteristics can improve it. The soil is... threatened by two danger factors: the soil degradation and the soil pollution. The accumulation of different harmful and/or toxic substances in the soil is well known. Heavy metals constitute a part of it. Metals in the soil and in the soil-solution are balanced. This balance depends on the type of the metal, on the pH, on the cation-band capacity of the soil, on the redox relations and the concentration of cations in the soil.
To be able to handle the metal contamination of the soil, it is important to estimate the form, the possible extension and the concentration of metals.
Of course, the different types of soils have different physical-chemical, biological and buffer capacity, they can moderate or reinforce the harmful effects of heavy metals. To draw general conclusion of the dispersion and quantitative relations on the metals originated from different contamination sources is hard, because in some emissive sources contamination is limited in small areas but on a high level, some others usually expand on larger areas, and as a result of equal dispersion, the contamination’s level is lower.
Heavy metals – unlike alkali ions – strongly bond to organic materials, or infiltrate in a kelát form. Their outstanding characteristic is the tendency to create metal-complex forms. Kelats take part in the uptaking and transportation of heavy metals. Heavy metals exert their effects mostly as enzyme-activators.
The metals cannot degrade in an organic way, they accumulate in living organisms, and they can form toxic compounds through biochemical reactions.
Lot of the heavy metals accumulate on the boundaries of the abiotic systems (air/soil, water/sediment), when physical or chemical parameters change, and this influences their remobilization.
Human activity plays a great part in heavy metal mobilization, results in the human origin of most biochemical process of metals.
To understand the toxic influence of accumulated metals of high concentration, their transportation from soils to plants or their damage in human health, must clearly defined and investigated.
For effective protection against soil pollution, the types and levels of harmful pollution to soil must identified, regarding legal, technical and soil-science aspects, preferable in a single way. Difficulties in this area mean that toxicity depends on loading, uptake, soil characteristics and living organisms (species, age, condition etc.), furthermore, local and economic conditions considerably differ.

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The character of the Bódva by the composition of the fishassociations
Published April 11, 2007
37-44

The Bódva is one of our rivers that flow outside the Hungarian borders and arrive to the country across the frontier.The Bódva is approximately 110 kilometres long, its upper course is mountaneous- like in its springfield in Slovakia and it reaches the Sajó by flowing among the lower hilly region. The river wall is ravine-like in more places..., the river itself is devious, and the water basin is rather variable as in the underlay muddy segments and heavily shingly beds can also be found.
By its fish fauna and physico-chemical characteristics, the Bódva is such aliving water that-after Borne and others (Nowicki, Thienemann) river zone system- can be regarded as an almost uniform typical Barbel zone.
According to our research program (2001-2005) and literature resources we estimated the fish fauna of the Bódva on both the Slovakian and Hungarian course. From some four decades to the wide ecofaunistic examinations of the near past we surveyed the quondam and present fish species of the Bódva River. According to our survey some 40 species compose the recent fish fauna of this river.
In the fish fauna of the Bódva those fish species that presently own a tight ecospectrum, sensitive to the changes of the environment thus so called indicator species, can also be found just like the less sensitive, invasive, aggressively reproducing species. By examining the changes in the fishfauna, the complex of those biogen and abiogen processes that affect the river can be indicated well. It can be stated that the fishfauna of the Bódva is rather rich with a countrywide measure also, and maintain a lot of rare, regressive protected and worth while protection species.
In the last period of the construction, the racial and quantitive composition of the fishfauna of the upper course of the Bódva has changed significantly. Certain species (in the Hungarian course) has vanished almost totally or at least their number declined not ably. Among the vanishing species there are not only a few substantial, protected species of the fauna (e.g. Barbus pelononnesius petényi, Leucaspius delineatus, Zingel sterber, Barbatula barbatula), but the number of the once mass species also decreased appreciably (e.g. Rhodeus sericeus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Cobitis elongatoides). With the above mentioned changes the number of other animals also decreased in the course that we examined (e.g. mussels, crabs). We examine the cause of these changes in the pollution of the river and according to that in the decrease of the food source and the negative changes of the physico-chemical parameters of the water.

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The effects of the extraction of non-ferrous metals on the ichthiofauna of the Lapus river bassin
Published April 11, 2007
6-8

Over the period 2003-2005 we made ichthyologic research in the basin of the Lapus river. During the sampling we noticed that in some area the water was polluted. In those areas fishweretotallyorpartiallymissing.
The main pollution sources are those related to nonferrous metal extraction and processing, but there is also pollution from organi...c substances resulted from the communal residual waters, as well as the “tuica”(alcoholic drink) distilleries.
Confronting the spots of the pollution sources with the results of the ichthyologic research.we noticed a significantcorrespondencebetween the qualitative and quantitative component of the ichthyofauna and the presence of these sources.
We could, therefore prove the effect of the process of self-purificationofthewater,aswellastheexistenceofsomespeciesoffishshowing a great degree of tolerance towards pollution.

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Investigations on Mud on Heavy Metal Contaminated Flood-Plain of Tisza
Published May 11, 2003
96-101

At the beginning of the year 2000 subsequently to a mine accident high heavy metal content mud entered the catchment area of the Tisza and was transported through the whole Hungarian section of the river. The majority of the heavy metals had been bounded to the floating sediment that was deposited on the flood-plain soil during flood forming a ...new, 5-10 cm thick layer. In the mud samples collected after the flood there was a clearly visible dark grey layer with significantly higher heavy metal content that was formed by the pollution wave and it was sorruonded by a light layer. The upper layer of flood-plain soils are formed from this mud layer during the soil development process, so the amount of Lakanen-Erviö soluble heavy metals that correlate with bioavailable heavy metal content was examined as well. In this case only the lead content was significantly higher in the dark layer.
New mud samples were collected after the 2001 flood. Separate layers could not have been identified, their colour was similar to those of the previous year’s light layers’. Comparing to this light layer the total Zn and Lakanen-Erivö soluble metal content was significantly lower in the mud samples of the year 2001. While the proportions of total and Lakanen-Erviö soluble metal concentrations were equal in both of the layers regarding the elements, these ratios have significantly changed next year regarding Pb and Zn: the amount of Lakanen-Erviö soluble metals considerably decreased.
As a result of sequential extraction the heavy metal content was rather low in the water soluble and exchangeable and NaOH-soluble fractions, so heavy metals found in the mud could be released in greater amount only in case of a heavy acidification.

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Complexity of ecosystem services in agricultural fields, in particular the biodiversity
Published February 17, 2015
43-51

Since the Convention on Biological Diversity a lot of papers have been published how to measure and value biodiversity. In the last decades publications on agro-ecosystems become more frequent and play a significant role in the provision of ecosystem services. There is a uniform definition for biodiversity in general, however, in terms of agro-...ecosystems and their services (including biodiversity) many weaknesses can be identified. The objective of this paper is to explore some of these problems with special regard to different definitions and terms and to the farmland ecosystem services. One solution could be to adopt a more complex system which has some ecological and environmental components (air, water and soil pollution) and also takes in to consideration the efficiency of agricultural production.

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