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Effects of water deficit on the growth and yield formation of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published May 16, 2017
143-148

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important consuming cereal crop in the world after rice and wheat. This requires an understanding of various management practices as well as conditions that affect maize crop performance. Water deficit stress during crop production is one of the most serious threats to crop production in most parts of the world a...nd drought stress or water deficit is an inevitable and recurring feature of global agriculture and it is against this background that field study of crops response to water deficit is very important to crop producer and researchers to maximize yield and improve crop production in this era of unpredicted climatic changes the world over.
A pot experiment was carried out to determine the effects of water deficit on growth and yield formation of maize. Two maize cultivars were used Xundan20 and Zhongdan5485. Three levels of soil water content were used in two stages of water control levels at two stages of the maize plant development
1. The JOINTING STAGE: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 70% to 80% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 55% to 65% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 40% to 50% of the Soil water holding capacity at the field.
2. The BIG FLARE PERIOD: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 75% to 85% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 58% to 68% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 45% to 55% of the soil water holding capacity at the field.
This research mainly studied the effects of water deficit on physiological, morphology and the agronomical characteristics of the maize plant at the different water stress levels.
The importance of these results in this experiment will enable plant producers to focus and have a fair idea as to which stage of the maize plant’s development that much attention must be given to in terms of water supply.

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Examination of extreme water-balance of maize cultivar in different crop rotation systems in 2007
Published December 21, 2008
33-40

We examined the change of the time of water balance of soil in long-term experiment, on chernozem soil, in different croprotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture). We found the smallest difference between the water deficit of not irrigated and irrigated plots in triculture. We concluded that irrigation impressed favourably on water balance o...f soil in both of crop-rotation systems. Water deficit has decreased significantly after irrigation
in 25. May in mono- and triculture. Irrigation moderated only values of water deficit. Irrigation in 30. June not influenced water balance of soil in both of crop-rotation because of a big drought. Water deficit of soil lessed till harvestperiod because of rainy season at the end of August and in September.

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22
42
Application of AquaCrop in processing tomato growing and calculation of irrigation water
Published June 30, 2018
183-187

The area and volume of processing tomato production is increasing in Hungary. Irrigation is crucial for processing tomato growing. To save water and energy, it is important to know exactly how much water is needed to reach the desirable quality and quantity. AquaCrop is a complex software, developed by FAO, which is able to calculate irrigation... water needs, several stress factors and to predict yields. A field experiment was conducted in Szarvas in processing tomato stands, under different irrigation treatments. These were the following: fully irrigated plot with 100% of evapotranspiration (ET) (calculated by AquaCrop), deficit irrigated plot with 50% of ET (D) and control (K) plot with basic water supply was also examined. Dry yield, crop water stress index and soil moisture were compared to modelled data. The yields in the plots with different access to water were not outstanding in the experiment. The model overestimated the yields in every case, but the actual and modelled yields showed good correlation. AquaCrop detected stomatal closure percentages only in the unirrigated plot. These values were compared to CWSI – computed from leaf surface temperature data, collected by a thermal cam in July – and showed moderately strong correlation. This result suggests that Aquacrop simulates water stress not precisely and it is only applicable in the case of water scarcity. Soil moisture data of the three plots were only compared by means. The measured and modeled data did not differ in the case of K and ET plots, but difference appeared in the D plot. The obtained results suggest that the use of AquaCrop for monitoring soil moisture and water stress has its limits when we apply the examined variables. In the case of dry yield prediction overestimation needs to be considered.

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Heterobeltiosis and combining ability among Egyptian cotton genotypes under well irrigated and water deficit conditions
Published December 1, 2020
5-18

Two field experiments were carried out during the 2014 and 2015 seasons to evaluate certain genotypes of Egyptian cotton under well irrigated and water stress conditions. The cross combination Giza 69 x Australy recorded the best values for better parent heterosis for all physiological measurements and earliness index under well irrigated a...nd deficit conditions. Of the female parents, Giza 86 was found to be a good general combiner for most yield characters under both normal and stress conditions, followed by Giza 94. Data illustrated that Giza 45 was the best general combiner for most fiber quality traits under both conditions. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Dandra and Giza 69 x Pima S6 showed significant positive SCA values for seed cotton and lint yield/plant under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. However, the combinations Giza 77 x PimaS6 and Giza 94 x 10229 recorded significant positive SCA effects for seed cotton yield/plant under stress. Whilst, the cross Giza 68 x 10229 recorded significant desirable SCA effects for most fiber quality properties. In this context, the estimates significant positive general and specific combining ability effects indicated that the epistasis and/or dominance effects for F1 hybrid in cotton could be important to a certain extent.

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Interactive evaluation of the main agrotechnical factors in rape production
Published November 2, 2009
71-79

Our polifactorial rape research was carried out at Látókép Research Centre of Debreceni Egyetem AMTC, 15 km away from Debrecen. The aim was to study the unique effect and the interactive effect of more factors. The research factors were the following: cultivation, time of sowing and nutrient supply. Soil moisture datas proved unambiguously t...hat increasing amounts of chemical fertilizer raise the water consumption of rape, lack of water in fertilized plots were always bigger then the water deficit in control plots. The highest amount of water deficit was experienced in the case of arable plots. However, increasing amounts of chemical fertilizers raised the amount of yield proportionately. We experienced yield depression only in the case of arable plots at the highest level of chemical fertilization. In polifactorial rape research sowing of 24th August 2007 of 2007/2008 was the most optimal in point of the amount of yield. This is most-significant in the case of loosening tillage and disking tillage plots, while the plots of ploughing lag behind those two in point of average yield. We experienced the biggest differences of yield in the case of different tillage plots of sowing on 24t August 2007. Still not even the plot with the highest average reached the limit of 4 tons, which can be attributed to high rate of lodging and the harvest loss caused by this. The biggest amount of yield was experienced in the case of sowing of 24th August 2007, with the highest level of chemical fertilization at loosening tillage plot (3930 kg/ha). We can observe big differences between the tillage methods; plots of loosening show a much better average yield then plots of disking and ploughing tillage. Considering the first observed crop year we can state that alternative tillage methods do have a future in rape growing of Hungary. 

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Relationship between the change of soil moisture content of different soil layers and maize yield
Published April 23, 2014
19-25

The development of chernozem soil water management and its relationship with maize yields was studied in a 30-years long-term field experiment with different crop-rotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture), in three crop years with different natural precipitation: a drought (2007), a wet (2008) and a dry (2009 one. The relevant soil layer was... divided to three sub-layers: (0–60 cm, 61–120 cm, 121–200 cm) in which the development of soil moisture content was investigated during the whole vegetation. From the results it can be stated that change of the water stock of the upper soil layer (0–60 cm) was the most intensive. Both the direct effect of natural precipitation and irrigation could be observed in the most obvious way in it. Yield result of maize and the highest water supply deficit values in the vegetation were compared in our work too. According to the results it was revealed that among the three studied crop rotation systems it was the monoculture, the success of production of which depends the most of water supply. The most favourable crop rotation system was the triculture from both the aspect of the yield of produced crops and the favourable soil properties too.

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68
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The effects of water supply on the physiological traits and yield of tomato
Published December 15, 2019
25-30

The SPAD value, the chlorophyll fluorescence and the canopy temperature of the leaves and fruits of tomato hybrid “H1015” were investigated under non-irrigated (I0), deficit irrigated (I50) and well-irrigated (I100) conditions. The aim of the experiments was to show which treatment effect on the examined traits affected photosynthesis, leaf... temperature and yield quantity, as well as quality under water scarcity. In the control treatment (I0), the canopy temperature increased, but the SPAD decreased compared to the other two treatments (I50 and I100). Chlorophyll fluorescence produced a fluctuating result. In the end, the number of the fruits was high, but the number of the sick and green berries was increased.

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Effect of extreme crop year on soil moisture in maize
Published December 15, 2010
35-40

We examined the change of the time of water balance of soil in 25 years old experiment, on chernozem soil, in different croprotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture) in two extreme cropyear in 2007 and 2009 in maizestock.
According to our findings the values of waterdeficit of soil of maizestock were about 100 mm before the sowing time th...at grew because of considerable deficit of precipitation and high average temperature in months of summer. Values of waterdeficit achieved at the end of August the maximum and lessed a little bit to end of crop time. Decrease of waterstock stopped because of irrigation treatments in irrigated plots but the difference between two irrigation treatments (Ö1-Ö3) vanishedat the end of summer, waterdeficit were higher with 17 mm in monoculture in irrigated plot than value of not-irrigated plot. Considerabler precipitation in Jun effected on waterbalance of soils of three of crop-rotation systems favourable, rapid waterloss starting to april began to lessenat the end of May and started to increase from early in July. Precipitation in Jun had positiv effect on yield also.

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The impact of cultivar and irrigation on yield, leaf surface temperature and SPAD readings of chili pepper
Published December 1, 2020
103-108

Paprika is an extremely popular and widespread plant species in Hungary. Chili peppers belongs to paprika and it can be consumed fresh or processed. The production of peppers began with the cultivation and control of some parameters for good results of paprika production. The aim of this article is to compare the water supply of four chili ...pepper hybrids ("Habanero", "Hetényi Parázs", "Unikal" and "Unijol") by means of investigation on open field and to examine how different temperatures and water stress factors influence the yield of chili peppers. The experiment area consisted of four different hybrids in three different irrigation treatments (control, deficit- and regular irrigation). The chlorophyll content was estimated with SPAD and the leaf surface temperature with Raytek MX4 TD. Our research concluded that deficit irrigation produced the highest yields for all cultivars and the lowest yields for the highest water supply.

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Selenium speciation analysis of selenium-enriched food sprouts
Published March 11, 2014
23-28

In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched pea and wheat sprouts. During our research we aimed not only to measure the total selenium content of the sprouts but to identify different selenium species.

Scientifical researches show why the analytical examination of different selenium (Se) species is necessary: consumption of all... kind of Se-species is useful for a person who suffers in selenium deficit, while there is significant difference between effects of different Se-species on person, in whose body the Se-level is just satisfactory. Biological availability, capitalization, accumulation, toxicity of Se-species are different, but the main difference was manifested in the anti-cancer effect of selenium.

During our research selenium was used in form of sodium selenite and sodium selenate, the concentration of the solutions used for germination was 10 mg dm-3. Control treatment meant germination in distilled water. Total selenium content of sprout samples was measured after microwave digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different extraction solvents were applied during sample preparation in order to separate different Se-species (0.1 M and 0.2 M HCl or 10 mM citric acid buffer). We wanted the following question to be answered: Which extraction solvent resulted the best extraction efficiency? Selenium speciation analysis of sprout sample extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with anion exchange column, detection of selenium species was performed by ICP-MS.

Evaluating our experimental results we have been found that significant amount of selenium of inorganic forms used during germination transformed into organic selenium compounds. There was difference between the amount of Se-species in pea and wheat sprouts and selenium uptake and repartition of selenium species were depended on Se-form used during germination. In addition the chromatogram analysis made us clear as well, that the citric acid solvent proved to be the most effective extraction solvent during sample preparation int he view of organic Se species.

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Effect of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRS) on yield and quality of processing tomato under water deficiency
Published December 1, 2020
19-22

Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured of H1015 tomato hybrid with different bacterial treatments (B0–B1–B2–B3) and three irrigation treatments: regular irrigated (RI), deficit irrigated (DI) and non-irrigated conditions (I0). The aim of the experiments was to show the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the yield, dry m...atter and vitamin C content of processing tomato during different irrigation treatments, and measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence during the ripening and development stages. According to the results, none of the bacterial treatments had a statistical effect on the quantity and quality of the tomato and on the chlorophyll fluorescence, only the irrigation. Further studies are needed.

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The effects of drought stress on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) growth, physiology and quality – Review
Published May 16, 2017
19-24

Abiotic stresses are one of the most limiting factors inhibit plant's growth, leading to a serious production loss. Drought stress is one of the most destructive abiotic stresses and is still increasing year after year resulting in serious yield losses in many regions of the world,
consequently, affecting world’s food security for the incr...easing world population. Soybean is an important grain legume. It is one of the five major crops in the world, an essential source of oil, protein, macronutrients and minerals, and it is known as the main source of plant oil and protein. Harvested area of soybean is increasing globally year after year. However, soybean is the highest drought stress sensitive crop, the water deficit influences the physiology, production and seed composition of this crop. We introduce a review for literatures concerning the changes of the above traits of soybean exposed to drought stress, with past explanations for these changes.

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